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Elements of Judicial Reform: Access to Justice/ Gender Thursday January 13, 2005. A. Waafas Ofosu-Amaah Senior Gender Specialist, PRMGE. Overview. Gender-related legal issues relevant for development Characteristics of the gender-related LJR work: A summary

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elements of judicial reform access to justice gender thursday january 13 2005

Elements of Judicial Reform: Access to Justice/ GenderThursday January 13, 2005

A. Waafas Ofosu-Amaah

Senior Gender Specialist, PRMGE

overview
Overview
  • Gender-related legal issues relevant for development
  • Characteristics of the gender-related LJR work: A summary
  • Examples of current LJR projects on gender
  • Key LJR-related needs from the Gender Strategy perspective
  • Gender-relevant legal and judicial dimensions/ issues from the regions: Findings from LAC, MENA & AFR CGAs
  • Kenya CGA recommendations for legal and policy reform
  • Implications for LJR projects
what are the relevant gender related legal issues for the development agenda
What are the Relevant Gender-Related Legal Issues for the Development Agenda?
  • Positive Impacts of the Law on Gender Equality:
    • Provide an enabling environment for gender equality
    • Provide basis for the recognition of gender equality
  • Negative Impacts of the Law on Gender Equality:
    • Discriminatory legal systems
    • Gender differentials in access to justice
  • Opportunities and challenges for the Bank:
    • Institutional strengthening
    • Gender capacity building for law and justice sector
characteristics of bank s gender related ljr work a summary
Characteristics of Bank’s gender-related LJR Work: A Summary
  • Mostly small-scale, capacity and institution building grants-based (IDFs, JSDFs)
  • Emphasis on institutional capacity building
  • Narrowly-defined sectoral focus
examples of small scale grant based ljrs with gender focus
Examples of Small-Scale, Grant-Based LJRs with Gender Focus
  • Uruguay - $300K to support efforts to implement international, regional and domestic law pertaining to gender-based violence (Strengthening Uruguay’s Justice Institutions for Equitable Development, 2004)
  • Mauritania - $285K to support the greater participation of women in the legal and judicial reform process (Application of the Law and Advancement of the Legal Status of Women, 1999)
  • Cambodia - $470K for development of laws on women’s and children’s rights (Rule of Law Development Project, 1998)
  • Key Questions: What is the evidence of impact on the ground, and what are the opportunities for scaling up?
examples of institutional capacity building focus
Examples of Institutional Capacity Building Focus
  • Burundi - $460K to train staff in the Ministry of Social Action and the Advancement of Women, build partnerships between the Ministry and civil society, e.g., Associations of Women Jurists to develop action plans for gender-sensitive legislation; design legal literacy programs and develop outreach activities (Capacity Building for Gender-Sensitive Legal Reform, 2003)
  • Rwanda - $400K to support government and civil society activities for gender-responsive legal reform, including building the capacity of the Ministry of Gender and Women in Development to develop a plan to eliminate discrimination against women through training, coordination and monitoring (Institutional Strengthening for the Legal Advancement of Women, 2001)
  • Key Question: What are the indicators of success for “Institutional Capacity Building”?
examples of narrowly defined sectoral focus
Examples of Narrowly-Defined Sectoral Focus
  • Ghana - $400K grant to build capacity of AG’s Office, Ministry for Women and Children in identifying gender-responsive legal policies and actions with a specific focus on the legal dimensions of HIV/AIDS (Ghana Legal Reform IDF Grant, 2002)
  • Nigeria - $400K grant with to build partnerships between National Center for Women’s Development, Legal Affairs Division of the Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Youth Development, again in context of HIV/AIDS (Nigeria Legal Reform and Legal Aid grant, 2002)
  • Cambodia – Rule of Law Development grant targeted laws and regulations relating to labor force and education
  • Key Question: What is the evidence of positive impacts of LJR activities on the sectoral issue targeted?
what are key ljr related needs from the gender strategy op bp perspective
What are key LJR-related needs from the Gender Strategy & OP/BP Perspective?
  • Gender profile
    • Laws, norms and societal practices that lead to discrimination
  • Country policy and institutional contexts
    • Gender policies and priorities
    • Legal and regulatory framework
    • Institutional arrangements
  • Portfolio review (optional)
    • May include LJR project
  • Suggested policy and operational interventions
    • May include legal reform
gender relevant legal dimensions of cgas lac
Gender-Relevant Legal Dimensions of CGAs(LAC)
  • Discriminatory laws and complex and unfriendly processes
  • Land reform and male bias (favoring farmer orgs, household heads, etc.)
  • Violence (as a health risk to adolescent males, male violence as a link to sexual abuse of children and violence against women)
  • Alcoholism and substance abuse
  • Child labor issues within the context of International Conventions
region specific legal issues from mena cgas
Region-Specific Legal Issues from MENA CGAs
  • Citizenship and nationality - discriminatory and patriarchal
  • Personal status laws - nationality of children, civil status, passports
  • Labor legislation – operates against women’s interests by barring them from a range of occupations deemed hazardous or requiring strength, in violation of CEDAW
gender relevant legal dimensions of cgas afr
Gender-Relevant Legal Dimensions of CGAs(AFR)
  • Limited enforcement of laws
  • Lack of effective institutional framework for enforcement
  • Multiple legal systems tend to lead to gender-based inequalities (statutory, customary and religious laws)
  • Women’s limited access to and control over productive and other resources
  • Violence against women (female genital mutilation, gender based violence in war-torn and conflict areas)
  • HIV/AIDS issues (traditional practices and customs, marriage, divorce, inheritance, child custody)
kenya cga recommended legal policy reform to address gender discrimination in 9 areas e g
Kenya CGA recommended legal & policy reform to address gender discrimination in 9 areas, e.g.,:
what are the implications for ljr and are the ljr projects targeting right issues
What are the Implications for LJR and are the LJR projects targeting right issues?
  • Opportunities?
  • Challenges?
  • Bank’s comparative advantage?