All levels of education in India, from primary to higher education, are overseen by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (Department of Higher Education (India) and Department of School Education and Literacy), and heavily subsidized by the Indian government, though there is a move to make higher education partially self-financing.
In India, the main types of schools are those controlled by: • The state government boards, in which the vast majority of Indian school-children are enrolled, • The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) board, • The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) board, • National Open School and • "International schools." • Overall, according to the latest Government Survey undertaken by NUEPA (DISE, 2005-6), there are 1,124,033 schools.
Higher Education in India • 227 government recognized universities in India. • Out of them 20 are central universities. • 109 are deemed universities. • 11 are open universities and rest are state universities. • Affiliating colleges- St Joseph’s Bangalore. • 16,885 colleges-99.54 lakh students- 8% • University grants commission(UGC).
Indian Institutes of Technology(IITs) • 13 autonomous engineering and technology-oriented institutes of higher education. • Institutes of National importance. • Created to train scientists and engineers. • About 15,500 undergraduates and 12,000 graduates and research scholars.
Indian Institute of Science(IISc) • Premier post-graduate institution of research and higher learning located in Bangalore. • 2000 students,400 faculty members,48 departments ranging from aerospace engineering to molecular biophysics to management.
Indian Institutes of Management(IIMs) • Premier management institutes. • Conduct research and provide consultancy services. • Top business schools of India. • 6 IIMs in 6 different places.
National Institutes of Technology(NIITs) • Premier colleges of engineering and technology education. • Originally called regional engineering colleges. • 17 NIITs at present and many more to come.
All India Institute of Medical Sciences(AIIMS • Autonomous medical college and hospital funded by India’s Union government. • Best medical college and public hospital in the country.
Compulsory and free elemetary education to all between the age group 6-14 • The strategies adopted by the Government to check drop-out rate are: • Creating parental awareness • Community mobilization • Economic incentives
Initiatives • Non-formal education (NFE) age group of 6-14. • Bal Bhavans – creative and sports skills of children age group of 5-16. • Distance education – Open universities.
Education for special sections of Society • Women – NFEs exclusively for girls. • SC/STs and OBCs – 60% of them- Scholarships, subsidy and fees waiver. • Post graduate classes at correctional homes.
Contemporary education issues • Rote learning – emphasis on passing examinations with high percentage. • Caste, language and religion based reservations- forged certificates- corruption. • Expenditure on education has to be 6% of the GDP- in 2004 only 3.5% was spent. • Sarva Shikshana abhiyan