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Chapter 3 – The Biosphere. What is Ecology?. Ecology The study of organisms and their interactions with their environment The root word of ecology means “ houses ” in Greek….so we ’ re studying the “ houses ” or habitat organisms live, and studying the organisms themselves.

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what is ecology
What is Ecology?
  • Ecology
    • The study of organisms and their interactions with their environment
    • The root word of ecology means “houses” in Greek….so we’re studying the “houses” or habitat organisms live, and studying the organisms themselves.
slide4
Its biosphere!

Biosphere –

 Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water and the atmosphere

 No biosphere = no people!

slide5
Biosphere –
    • “life”“sphere”
  • Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water and the atmosphere
slide6
The Biosphere is made up of…

Biomes which are made up of

Ecosystems which contain…

Communities made up of…

Populations made up of…

Organisms or a Species

slide7
Biome –
    • Group of ecosystems that share similar climate and typical organisms
    • OR geographic region of earth usually defined by weather and the species found there.
    • Biome Examples:
      • Grasslands – Temperate and Tropical (savannah)
      • Deserts
      • Forest – Deciduous, Rain
      • Others…
ecosystem terms
Ecosystem Terms
  • Ecosystem –
    • All the living organisms in an area and the physical environment in which they life.
      • OR living group of organisms that interact with each other and the nonliving environment
  • Community -
    • The different populations that live in an area
ecosystem terms1
Ecosystem Terms

Population –

a group of individuals of the same species in an area

PA Examples:

White tail deer

Black oak trees

Black bears

9 12 and 9 13 atb
9/12 and 9/13 ATB
  • What are 3 characteristics that a species shares?
  • Today:
    • Printing assignment due
    • Discuss hybrid organisms
    • Compare / contrast abiotic and biotic factors and their importance to life
ecosystem terms2
Ecosystem Terms
  • Species –
    • a group of organisms that are capable of breeding and producing fertile offspring
      • Similar appearance and similar genetic makeup,
    • Examples:
      •  dogs
      •  cats
      •  humans
ecosystem terms3
Ecosystem Terms
  • Hybrid –
    • an offspring of two different species (or objects)
      • These are sterile
    • Examples:
      • Mule – horse and donkey
      • Liger – lion (male) and tiger (female)
      • Fuel efficient vehicles

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CD6vpheUoPE

slide13
Are "Humanzees" Possible?
  • http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-mizejewski/are-humanzees-possible_b_877792.html
slide17
Last Class

Tiglons / Tigons – female lion and male tiger

Ligers – male lion and female tiger

- have been found to be fertile in some cases

http://app1.chinadaily.com.cn/star/2002/0829/bz9-4.html

ecosystem terms4
Ecosystem Terms
  • Habitat –
    • a place where a particular species lives – can be very big or small
    • Examples:
      • Atlantic Ocean
      • Mud puddle
      • Forest
      • YourSkin
biotic and abiotic factors
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  • Biotic Factors –
    • living parts of the ecosystem (grass, animals, etc)
  • Abiotic Factors –
    • nonliving (never were alive) parts of the ecosystem
slide20
List 5 abiotic factors on land
  • Surface/ground water
  • Sunlight
  • Wind
  • Temperature
  • Altitude
  • List 5 abiotic factors in water
  • Currents
  • Temperature
  • Concentration of nutrients in the water
  • Air (CO2, O2, N2)
  • Soil
  • Precipitation
  • Lighting
  • Salinity
  • Sunlight penetration
biotic and abiotic factors1
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  • Both of biotic and abiotic factors make up the environment in which organisms live
  • Soil – made up of nonliving particles, but also many bacteria and fungi
writing practice 3 minutes
Writing practice (3 minutes)
  • In a margin of your packet:
    • Choose anything biotic and describe how ANY abiotic factor could affect it.
    • THINK…it doesn’t matter what it is
    • Yes you can be creative, and no, this isn’t graded.
slide24
Create a sentence that explains how an abiotic factor could affect a biotic factor in an environment
slide25
Reviewing Terms

Biosphere

Ecosystem

Population

Species

Hybrid

Habitat

slide26
Quick Talk

Habitat

Ecosystem

Species

Population

Hybrid

Biosphere

review
Review
  • What is main the difference between a species and a hybrid?
  • Describe TWO ways in which abiotic factors could effect an organism in an environment
primary producers
Primary Producers
  • Autotrophs
    • Organisms that use solar or chemical energy to produce food
  • What is the food that autotrophs produce?
      • Sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose)
  • Examples:
    • Algae, certain types of bacteria, plants
primary producers1
Primary Producers
  • Primary Producers –
    • organisms that use elements from the environment to make their own food
    • aka autotrophs
    • What elements do most producers use/need?
      • Sun, Water, CO2, Soil for nutrients and minerals
    • Examples =
      • Plants and chemosynthetic bacteria
primary producers2
Primary Producers
  • Photosynthesis
    • Process of capturing light energy to make chemical energy (food – glucose)
primary producers3
Primary Producers
  • Chemosynthesis
    • Organisms that use chemicals (hydrogen sulfide) to produce carbohydrates
  • Examples – chemosynthetic bacteria
chemosynthesis
Chemosynthesis
  • Hydrothermal Vents – 1
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D69hGvCsWgA
  • David Attenborough on Hydrothermal Vents
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXGF3XS-yAI
  • Hydrothermal Vents (nat geo)
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XotF9fzo4Vo
  • .
consumers
Consumers
  • Heterotroph –
    • Organisms that must acquire energy from other organisms
  • Consumer –
    • an organism that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients
    • Examples = us, animals, lions, tigers, and bears
ecosystem terms5
Ecosystem Terms
  • Primary Consumer –
    • consumers that feed on plants
      • Examples:
  • Secondary Consumer –
    • consumers that feed on primary consumers
    • Examples:
  • Tertiary Consumer –
    • eats a 2nd level consumer
consumers1
Consumers
  • Carnivore –
    • an organism that only (primarily) eats meat
  • PA Examples:
  • Scavenger –
    • an organism that feeds on dead organisms
    • Examples:
slide36
Types of Consumers

Herbivore –

an organism thatonly (primarily) eats plants

PA Examples:

Omnivore–

an organism thatreadily eats both plants and meat

PA Examples:

exceptions
Exceptions?
  • Photosynthetic sea slug
  • ElysiaChlorotica: A Sap-Sucking, Solar-Powered Sea Slug
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAMP8erryKE
  • Sea slug intro
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQNIpW0LlsU
  • Amazing Photosynthetic Animals
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AcX2n1rC4W4
  • Venus fly trap - The Private Life of Plants - David Attenborough - BBC wildlife
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktIGVtKdgwo
consumers2
Consumers
  • Decomposer –
    • bacteria or fungus that chemically break down dead organisms
  • How do decomposers help an ecosystem?
    • Break down dead organisms and return their nutrients to the soil.
  • Detrivores
    • Organisms that feed on decaying particles (leaves, etc)
    • Examples: Worms, crabs, snails
decomposition vids
Decomposition Vids
  • The Body Farm - Study of Human Decomposition
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V_SiqND9bNA
  • Baby Pig
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1CD6gNmhr0
  • Elephant
      • http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/elephant-life-after-death/
      • Eating Giants (little gross)
        • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OX9xCo183VA
  • Hippo
    • http://animal.discovery.com/video-topics/wild-animals/eating-giants-hippo.htm
slide42
Soil
  • Why is soil important?
    • Provides nutrients for plants to grow
    • The loss of soil prevents producers from growing and hurts the ecosystem
    • Soil Erosion –
      • the movement of soil by wind, water or any other source
what do all these have in common
What do all these have in common?
  • Consumers
  • Herbivores
  • Omnivores
  • Carnivores
  • Decomposers
  • All these are considered -- heterotrophs
book assignment
Book Assignment
  • Page 72
  • #1-2
slide45
Review

Are herbivores always consumers?

Are consumers always herbivores?

Are carnivores ever primary consumers?

slide46
Review

Which of the following would be TRUE of a zorse?

  • The zorse will probably have many baby zorses.
  • The zorse should be identical to the horse in genetic makeup and appearance.
  • The zorse is most likely infertile.
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