The Human Body - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

aleron
the human body n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Human Body PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Human Body

play fullscreen
1 / 59
Download Presentation
The Human Body
406 Views
Download Presentation

The Human Body

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The Human Body Bones, Muscles, and Skin

  2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=chqwSh4ii84&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=chqwSh4ii84&feature=related Organization of the Human Body

  3. Cells – the basic unit of structure and function • 100 trillion in the adult human body • Play specific roles • Tissues – a group of connected cells that have a similar function • Connective tissue – Form the bodies structure • Bone and Cartilage Organization of the Human Body

  4. Types of Tissues • Epithelial tissue • Line the inner and outer body surfaces • Skin, lining of the digestive tract • Protects the body and its internal organs • Secretes substances like hormones • Absorbs substances like nutrients Organization of the Human Body

  5. Tissues • Muscle Tissue • Have a unique ability to contract • Attached to bone allowing the body to move • Nervous Tissue • Made up of neurons that carry electrical impulses • Brain and nerves that connect the brain to all other parts of the body Organization of the Human Body

  6. An organ is a structure that consists of two or more types of tissues that work together to do the same job • Brain, lungs, heart, skin, kidneys • In Humans organs are organized into organ systems • Work together to carry out a complex overall function • Each organ does a part of a much larger job • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=po8D290YF9o&feature=related Organs and Organ Systems

  7. A well-oiled machine • Closely controlled and regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems • Nervous system does the controlling of the body systems • The endocrine system secretes hormones that regulate the activities • Functioning together they maintain homeostasis • Temperature, pH, and other conditions at just the right levels to support life The End Result

  8. Respiratory System • A high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood triggers faster breathing. • The lungs exhale more frequently which removes carbon dioxide from the body more quickly • Excretory System • Low level of water in the blood triggers retention of water by the kidneys • Kidney’s produce more concentrated urine, so less water is lost from the body Maintaining Homeostasis

  9. Endocrine System • High concentration of sugar in the blood triggers secretion of insulin by the pancreas • Insulin helps cells absorb more sugar from the blood stream Maintaining Homeostasis

  10. Cells may not get everything they need • Toxic wastes may accumulate in the body • Imbalance may lead to disease or even death Homeostasis Failure

  11. All the bones of the body • In adults there are 206 bones • Cartilage provides a smooth surface on which the joints can move • Ligaments hold bones together The Skeletal System

  12. Functions • Protection of internal organs • Providing attachment surfaces for muscles • Producing blood cells • Storing minerals • Maintaining mineral homeostasis • Need just the right amount of calcium in the blood for normal body functioning • Bones can absorb excesses The Skeletal System

  13. Very different from what we might think from looking at the bones of a skeleton • Bones are very much alive Structure of Bones

  14. Bone matrix • Compact and spongy bone • Tough protein fibers (collagen) that becomes hard and rigid due to mineralization with calcium crystals • Crisscrossed with blood vessels and nerves • Contains bones cells involved in metabolism • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4qTiw8lyYbs Structure of Bones

  15. Osteoblasts – make new bone cells and secrete collagen that mineralizes to become bone matrix • Bone growth • Uptake of minerals from the blood • Osteocytes – regulate mineral homeostasis • Direct uptake of minerals from the blood and the release of minerals back into the blood as needed Bone Cells

  16. Osteoclasts – dissolve mineral in bone matric and release them back into the blood • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yENNqRJ2mu0&feature=related Bone Cells

  17. Compact Bone • Makes up the dense outer layer of bone • Hard and strong • Spongy bone • Found inside bones and is lighter and less dense than compact bone because it is porous • Bone marrow • A soft connective tissue that produces blood cells • Found inside the pores of spongy bone Bone Tissues

  18. Periosteum • A tough, fibrous membrane that covers and protects the outer surfaces of bones Bone Tissues

  19. Fetus – cartilage only • Will turn into hard bone by a process called ossification • Mineral deposits replace the cartilage • By birth several area of cartilage remain • End of long bones • Remains as the bones grow • Skeletal maturity reach by about age 20 and growth will stop • Will increase in thickness Growth and Development of Bones

  20. Bone Growth

  21. A joint is where two or more bones meet • Immovable – allow no movement • Skull • Partly moveable – allow very limited movement • Held together by cartilage • Ribs and sternum • Moveable – allow the most movement • Connected by ligaments • Most common type of joint Joints http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SOMFX_83sqk

  22. Moveable • Also called synovial joints • Space between is filled with a thick fluid called synovial fluid that cushions the joint • Ball and Socket – shoulder • Hinge – knee • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zWo9-3GJpr8&feature=related Joints

  23. Fractures – breaks in bone – heal when osteoclasts form new bone • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qVougiCEgH8&feature=PlayList& • Osteoarthritis – cartilage breaks down causing joint stiffness and pain • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F8YLJxiNh9Y • Rickets • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ULfxsJKBuw Skeletal System Problems

  24. The Muscular System

  25. Includes all of the muscles of the body • Made up of muscle cells which are also called muscle fibers • These muscles fibers can contract or shorten • No other cell in the body can do this • This is responsible for all movement of the body both inside and out Introduction

  26. Types of Muscle

  27. Smooth Muscle • Walls of internal organs like the stomach and intestines • Helps the organs carry out their functions • These contractions are involuntary • They are not under conscious control Types of Muscle

  28. Skeletal Muscle • This type of muscle is attached to bone • Contractions of skeletal muscles are voluntary • They are under conscious control • The most common type of muscle • More on this in a moment Types of Muscle

  29. Cardiac Muscle • Found in in the walls of the heart • When it contracts the heart beats and pumps • Contains lots of mitochondria which produces ATP for energy • Helps the heart resist fatigue • Contractions are involuntary Types of Muscle

  30. Over 600 in the human body • Vary greatly in size • Contain hundreds to thousands of muscle fibers • Surrounded by connective tissue Skeletal Muscles

  31. Skeletal Muscles http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XoP1diaXVCI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uY2ZOsCnXIA&lr=1

  32. Bones and muscles are connected by tendons • Muscles can only contract • So to move in opposite directions they must work together to make that happen Skeletal Muscles and Bones http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-ozRNVhGVg&feature=related

  33. Using skeletal muscles such as in weight lifting causes the muscle to increase in size and strength • Running increases the strength and efficiency of cardiac muscle • Continual exercise is necessary to maintain bigger, stronger muscles • If you don’t use muscle, it get smaller and weaker Use it or lose it

  34. Happens when muscle fibers shortens • Muscle Fibers • Contain organelles called myofibrils • Made up of two types of protein filaments • Actin (Thinner) and Myocin (Thicker) • Actin are connected to structure called Z lines • Region between two Z lines is called a sacromere • Actin and Myocin filaments overlap within the sacromere • Myocin has tine structures called cross bridges that can attach to actin fiber Muscle Contraction

  35. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7V-zFVnFkWg&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7V-zFVnFkWg&feature=related Sliding Filament Theory

  36. Muscles need a stimulus to contract • This message comes in the form of an electrical nerve impulse from the brain to nerve cells called motor neurons • This neurons cause to muscle to perform the action the is desired • (Involuntary contractions of cardiac and smooth muscles are also controlled by nerves) Muscles and Nerves

  37. The Integumentary System

  38. Integumentary system • Skin, hair, nails • Provide protective covering • Help maintain homeostasis • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IAAt_MfIJ-Y Skin

  39. The largest organ in the body • 1 Square inch of skin • 20 blood vessels • 650 sweat glands • 1000+ nerve endings • 60,000 pigment producing cells • On 2 mm thick • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uH_uzjY2bEE&feature=fvw Skin

  40. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d-IJhAWrsm0&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d-IJhAWrsm0&feature=related Epidermis and Dermis

  41. The outer layer of skin • Make up of epithelial cells and little else • No nerve endings or blood vessels • Innermost cells are continually undergoing mitosis to form new cells • They move up through the layers as needed • Produce a tough, fibrous protein called keratin • Fill and then die by the time they reach the surface • Form a protective waterproof layer called the stratum corneum Epidermis

  42. Contains melanocytes • Produce melanin – brownish pigment that gives skin its color • Amount produced is determined by heredity • Increases due to exposure to UV radiation • Tanning • Also stimulates the skin to produce vitamin D • Melanin prevents UV radiation from penetrating the skin • Darker skinned people may be subject to a Vitamin D deficiency Epidermis

  43. Lower layer of skin directly below the epidermis • Made of tough connective tissue and attached to the epidermis by collagen fibers • Blood vessels and nerve ending • Hair follicles and two types of glands Dermis

  44. Hair follicles are when hairs originate – grow out of follicles and exit at the surface of the skin • Sebaceous glands – produce an oily substance called sebum • Secreted into hair follicles and makes its way to the surface • Waterproofs the hair and skin and helps prevent them from drying out • Antibacterial as well Dermis