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The Human Body

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  1. The Human Body Bones, Muscles, and Skin

  2. Organization of the Human Body

  3. Cells – the basic unit of structure and function • 100 trillion in the adult human body • Play specific roles • Tissues – a group of connected cells that have a similar function • Connective tissue – Form the bodies structure • Bone and Cartilage Organization of the Human Body

  4. Types of Tissues • Epithelial tissue • Line the inner and outer body surfaces • Skin, lining of the digestive tract • Protects the body and its internal organs • Secretes substances like hormones • Absorbs substances like nutrients Organization of the Human Body

  5. Tissues • Muscle Tissue • Have a unique ability to contract • Attached to bone allowing the body to move • Nervous Tissue • Made up of neurons that carry electrical impulses • Brain and nerves that connect the brain to all other parts of the body Organization of the Human Body

  6. An organ is a structure that consists of two or more types of tissues that work together to do the same job • Brain, lungs, heart, skin, kidneys • In Humans organs are organized into organ systems • Work together to carry out a complex overall function • Each organ does a part of a much larger job • Organs and Organ Systems

  7. A well-oiled machine • Closely controlled and regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems • Nervous system does the controlling of the body systems • The endocrine system secretes hormones that regulate the activities • Functioning together they maintain homeostasis • Temperature, pH, and other conditions at just the right levels to support life The End Result

  8. Respiratory System • A high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood triggers faster breathing. • The lungs exhale more frequently which removes carbon dioxide from the body more quickly • Excretory System • Low level of water in the blood triggers retention of water by the kidneys • Kidney’s produce more concentrated urine, so less water is lost from the body Maintaining Homeostasis

  9. Endocrine System • High concentration of sugar in the blood triggers secretion of insulin by the pancreas • Insulin helps cells absorb more sugar from the blood stream Maintaining Homeostasis

  10. Cells may not get everything they need • Toxic wastes may accumulate in the body • Imbalance may lead to disease or even death Homeostasis Failure

  11. All the bones of the body • In adults there are 206 bones • Cartilage provides a smooth surface on which the joints can move • Ligaments hold bones together The Skeletal System

  12. Functions • Protection of internal organs • Providing attachment surfaces for muscles • Producing blood cells • Storing minerals • Maintaining mineral homeostasis • Need just the right amount of calcium in the blood for normal body functioning • Bones can absorb excesses The Skeletal System

  13. Very different from what we might think from looking at the bones of a skeleton • Bones are very much alive Structure of Bones

  14. Bone matrix • Compact and spongy bone • Tough protein fibers (collagen) that becomes hard and rigid due to mineralization with calcium crystals • Crisscrossed with blood vessels and nerves • Contains bones cells involved in metabolism • Structure of Bones

  15. Osteoblasts – make new bone cells and secrete collagen that mineralizes to become bone matrix • Bone growth • Uptake of minerals from the blood • Osteocytes – regulate mineral homeostasis • Direct uptake of minerals from the blood and the release of minerals back into the blood as needed Bone Cells

  16. Osteoclasts – dissolve mineral in bone matric and release them back into the blood • Bone Cells

  17. Compact Bone • Makes up the dense outer layer of bone • Hard and strong • Spongy bone • Found inside bones and is lighter and less dense than compact bone because it is porous • Bone marrow • A soft connective tissue that produces blood cells • Found inside the pores of spongy bone Bone Tissues

  18. Periosteum • A tough, fibrous membrane that covers and protects the outer surfaces of bones Bone Tissues

  19. Fetus – cartilage only • Will turn into hard bone by a process called ossification • Mineral deposits replace the cartilage • By birth several area of cartilage remain • End of long bones • Remains as the bones grow • Skeletal maturity reach by about age 20 and growth will stop • Will increase in thickness Growth and Development of Bones

  20. Bone Growth

  21. A joint is where two or more bones meet • Immovable – allow no movement • Skull • Partly moveable – allow very limited movement • Held together by cartilage • Ribs and sternum • Moveable – allow the most movement • Connected by ligaments • Most common type of joint Joints

  22. Moveable • Also called synovial joints • Space between is filled with a thick fluid called synovial fluid that cushions the joint • Ball and Socket – shoulder • Hinge – knee • Joints

  23. Fractures – breaks in bone – heal when osteoclasts form new bone • • Osteoarthritis – cartilage breaks down causing joint stiffness and pain • • Rickets • Skeletal System Problems

  24. The Muscular System

  25. Includes all of the muscles of the body • Made up of muscle cells which are also called muscle fibers • These muscles fibers can contract or shorten • No other cell in the body can do this • This is responsible for all movement of the body both inside and out Introduction

  26. Types of Muscle

  27. Smooth Muscle • Walls of internal organs like the stomach and intestines • Helps the organs carry out their functions • These contractions are involuntary • They are not under conscious control Types of Muscle

  28. Skeletal Muscle • This type of muscle is attached to bone • Contractions of skeletal muscles are voluntary • They are under conscious control • The most common type of muscle • More on this in a moment Types of Muscle

  29. Cardiac Muscle • Found in in the walls of the heart • When it contracts the heart beats and pumps • Contains lots of mitochondria which produces ATP for energy • Helps the heart resist fatigue • Contractions are involuntary Types of Muscle

  30. Over 600 in the human body • Vary greatly in size • Contain hundreds to thousands of muscle fibers • Surrounded by connective tissue Skeletal Muscles

  31. Skeletal Muscles

  32. Bones and muscles are connected by tendons • Muscles can only contract • So to move in opposite directions they must work together to make that happen Skeletal Muscles and Bones

  33. Using skeletal muscles such as in weight lifting causes the muscle to increase in size and strength • Running increases the strength and efficiency of cardiac muscle • Continual exercise is necessary to maintain bigger, stronger muscles • If you don’t use muscle, it get smaller and weaker Use it or lose it

  34. Happens when muscle fibers shortens • Muscle Fibers • Contain organelles called myofibrils • Made up of two types of protein filaments • Actin (Thinner) and Myocin (Thicker) • Actin are connected to structure called Z lines • Region between two Z lines is called a sacromere • Actin and Myocin filaments overlap within the sacromere • Myocin has tine structures called cross bridges that can attach to actin fiber Muscle Contraction

  35. Sliding Filament Theory

  36. Muscles need a stimulus to contract • This message comes in the form of an electrical nerve impulse from the brain to nerve cells called motor neurons • This neurons cause to muscle to perform the action the is desired • (Involuntary contractions of cardiac and smooth muscles are also controlled by nerves) Muscles and Nerves

  37. The Integumentary System

  38. Integumentary system • Skin, hair, nails • Provide protective covering • Help maintain homeostasis • Skin

  39. The largest organ in the body • 1 Square inch of skin • 20 blood vessels • 650 sweat glands • 1000+ nerve endings • 60,000 pigment producing cells • On 2 mm thick • Skin

  40. Epidermis and Dermis

  41. The outer layer of skin • Make up of epithelial cells and little else • No nerve endings or blood vessels • Innermost cells are continually undergoing mitosis to form new cells • They move up through the layers as needed • Produce a tough, fibrous protein called keratin • Fill and then die by the time they reach the surface • Form a protective waterproof layer called the stratum corneum Epidermis

  42. Contains melanocytes • Produce melanin – brownish pigment that gives skin its color • Amount produced is determined by heredity • Increases due to exposure to UV radiation • Tanning • Also stimulates the skin to produce vitamin D • Melanin prevents UV radiation from penetrating the skin • Darker skinned people may be subject to a Vitamin D deficiency Epidermis

  43. Lower layer of skin directly below the epidermis • Made of tough connective tissue and attached to the epidermis by collagen fibers • Blood vessels and nerve ending • Hair follicles and two types of glands Dermis

  44. Hair follicles are when hairs originate – grow out of follicles and exit at the surface of the skin • Sebaceous glands – produce an oily substance called sebum • Secreted into hair follicles and makes its way to the surface • Waterproofs the hair and skin and helps prevent them from drying out • Antibacterial as well Dermis