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Geo 302 - 11.03.02. Tourism development trends Ecotourism Case from Costa Rica: Tortuguero , ”the ecotourism prototype”. … almost 400 million arrivals in 1999. World Tourism Organization. http://www.world-tourism.org/. Tourism in Developing Countries. The many kinds of tourism:

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geo 302 11 03 02
Geo 302 - 11.03.02
  • Tourism development trends
  • Ecotourism
  • Case from Costa Rica:
  • Tortuguero, ”the ecotourism prototype”
world tourism organization
World Tourism Organization
  • http://www.world-tourism.org/
tourism in developing countries
Tourism in Developing Countries

The many kinds of tourism:

  • “Sun & Sand” etc. (mass tourism)
  • Nature Tourism
  • Adventure Tourism of many kinds
  • Cultural Tourism
  • Green Tourism
  • Responsible Tourism
  • Sustainable Tourism
  • Ecotourism (“ecology / ecological tourism”)
  • = priority sector in very many developing countries
tourism in developing countries1
Tourism in Developing Countries

Tourisme & development, economic & local, systematic typologies:

  • Individual, Mass tourism
  • “Informal”, “Formal” or Unorganised, Organised
  • Pioneer, ”Backpackers”
  • = ”anti-tourists”….?
  • “Sandal tourist” / “Bubble tourist”
  • = ???
  • Typical turist destination development: TALC
what is ecotourism
What is ecotourism?

”...While the details vary,

most definitions of ecotourism

boil down to a special form of tourism

that meets three criteria:

1) it provides for conservation measures

2) it includes meaningful community participation and

3) it is profitable and can sustain itself. …. ”

what is ecotourism1
What is ecotourism?
  • Strictly defined "ecotourism" is relatively low-impact group travel packages or tours to destinations in nature;
  • "adventure travel" may be individuals or groups engaged in a consumer activity associated with the outdoors: not necessarily environmentally sensitive or ecologically sound.
  • One might speak of "true ecotourism" or "false ecotourism" ("greenwashing").
what is ecotourism2
What is ecotourism?
  • ”Sustainable tourism”:
  • the most all-encompassing term for the cultural, environmental... and fiscal, responsibility of the tourism industry as a whole.
  • Sustainable tourism would therefore include true ecotourism and responsible adventure travel.
  • ”Responsible tourism”: Originally used by social activists often without a nature component entirely… .
world tourism organization1
World Tourism Organization

"Sustainable tourism development

  • meets the needs of present tourists and host regions
  • while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future.
  • It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled
  • while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems." (WTO)
what is ecotourism3
What is ecotourism?
  • ”Greenwashing" in tourism:
  • falsification of objective requirements for environmental conservation, ecological sustainability, and/or socio-cultural responsibility.
ecotourism
Ecotourism

Professionals working within the field of ecotourism generally agree that it is characterized by:

  • Travel to a natural area.
  • Travel that supports the conservation of biodiversity.
  • Travel that brings benefits to local host communities.
  • Travel that leads to greater understanding of the natural or cultural environment visited.
ecotourism1
Ecotourism
  • Including these four components in a travel package significantly restricts the number of products that can genuinely be labelled ecotourism.
  • Many confuse the term with nature tourism or adventure travel, but they are not the same.
  • Rather, ecotourism is one niche market within the larger, and rapidly expanding, nature tourism market.
  • By our estimates, nature-based tourism now comprises 20 per cent of the world travel market,
  • and ecotourism 7 per cent.
what is ecotourism4
What is ecotourism?
  • Different perspectives:
  • Ecotourism as ideology / ethics:
  • tourists
  • suppliers
  • Ecotourism as (government) development strategy:
  • resource mangement
  • sustainable development
  • Ecotourism as marketing strategy:
  • opportunistic
  • ”greenwashing”…?
international year of ecotourism
International Year of Ecotourism
  • http://www.world-tourism.org/sustainable/IYE-Main-Menu.htm
slide22
http://www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/
  • UNEP Publication
  • Ecotourism: Principles, Practices and Policies for Sustainability
wto unep concept paper international year of ecotourism 2002
WTO-UNEP CONCEPT PAPER - INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF ECOTOURISM 2002:

While there is not a universal definition for ecotourism, its general characteristics can be summarised as follows:

  • 1. All nature-based forms of tourism in which the main motivation of the tourists is the observation and appreciation of nature as well as the traditional cultures prevailing in natural areas
  • 2. It contains educational and interpretation features
  • 3. It is generally, but not exclusively organised for small groups by specialised and small, locally owned businesses. …..
wto unep concept paper international year of ecotourism 20021
WTO-UNEP CONCEPT PAPER - INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF ECOTOURISM 2002:
  • 3. …. Foreign operators of varying sizes also organise, operate and/or market ecotourism tours, generally for small groups.
  • 4. It minimises negative impacts upon the natural and socio-cultural environment
  • 5. It supports the protection of natural areas by
  • • generating economic benefits for host communities, organisations and authorities managing natural areas with conservation purposes,
  • • providing alternative employment and income opportunities for local communities,
  • • increasing awareness towards the conservation of natural and cultural assets, both among locals and tourists.
wto unep concept paper international year of ecotourism 20022
WTO-UNEP CONCEPT PAPER - INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF ECOTOURISM 2002:
  • Over the years, it has also become clear that some concerns still need to be wholly addressed in ecotourism, such as:
  • • land tenure and control of the ecotourism development process by host communities,
  • • efficiency and fairness of the current concept of protected areas for protection of biological and cultural diversity
  • • the need for additional precautions and monitoring when operating in especially sensitive areas
  • • indigenous and traditional rights in areas suitable for ecotourism development,
slide35
OUTSIDE WORLD

(US, World Market, Debt Crisis, “Brundtland”)

Government

Migration

-

Commuting

TORTUGUERO:

External

Owners

NAT. RESOURCES

LOCAL COMM.

“Caribb.”

or “Tico”?

Subsistence

Comm. Co-op.

“Commons”

Local Market

Private

Import

Export

Tourists - Researchers - Environmentalists

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