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  1. Telecommunication (302) Theory: 2x3 hours/week (Monday 15.20-17.55, room: TA 323, Friday 13.30- 16.05, room: TG 107) Lastlecture: 20. october, test: until 31. october Ifthe test result is 4 or 5, weacceptitas an examresult, otherwiseexamatthe end of semester! Condition of thesignature: completionofalllaboratoryexcerciseswithdocumentations Laboratoryexcercises: 6 excercises: 3 „traditional” (inthefirst part of semester), 3 programming (inthesecond part of semester), room: TA 15/A

  2. Telecommunication Instructorresponsible: Dóra Maros Theory: 39 hours Teachers: Dóra Maros: standardization, concepts(6 hours) Tibor Gudra: networksbasics (12 hours) Péter Antók: opticalnetworks (3 hours) György Lukács: radiotransmission (6 hours) Sándor Gyányi : IP (9 ) József Kármán: network management (3 hours) Test: 2 hours

  3. Specifications, Standardization and RelatedBodies

  4. Szabályozási szervezetek StandardizationBodies WORLD International ElectrotechnicalCommission International Telecommunication Union International Organization forStandardization EUROPE European TelecommunicationsStandards Institute Comité Européen de Normalisation Électrotechnique;

  5. OtherImportantOrganizations Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  International FederationforInformationProcessing Internet EngineeringTaskForce

  6. International Telecommunication Union (  ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies – ICTs.. 193 Member States, ITU membership includes ICT regulators, leading academic institutions and some 700 private companies. Goals:allocate global radio spectrum and satellite orbits, develop the technical standards that ensure networks and technologies seamlessly interconnect, and strive to improve access to ICTs to underserved communities worldwide.

  7. International Telecommunication Union Sectors International Telecommunication Union Sectors: ITU-R: Radiocommunication ITU-T: TelecommunicationStandardization ITU-D: TelecommunicationDevelopment

  8. ITU-R • The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) plays a vital role in the global management of the radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbits. • Global Management of services (land, sea, sky): • fixed, mobiletelecommunications • broadcasting • amateurradio • space research • emergency telecommunications • meteorology • global positioning systems • environmental monitoring and communication services

  9. ITU-T Assembleof experts from around the world to develop international standards known asITU-T Recommendations which act as defining elements in the global infrastructure of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Standards are critical to the interoperability of ICTs and whether we exchange voice, video or data messages, standards enable global communications by ensuring that countries’ ICT networks and devices are speaking the same language.

  10. ITU-D Coremission: foster international cooperation and solidarity in the delivery of technical assistance and in the creation, development and improvement of telecommunication equipment and networks in developing countries. Most importantprojects: Climatechange: Facilitating carbon emission reductions and monitoring, mitigating impact and adapting to change. Emergencytelecommunication: Maximizing the contribution of ICTs to disaster predication, detection and coordination. Cybersecurity: Fostering the integrity of ICT systems that is essential for their continued development. And otherslike: Regulatory & market environment (e.g roaming), ICT applications (e-health, e-government), Digital Inclusion (specialsolutzionsforpersons with disabilities, children etc.)

  11. ITU StudyGroups (SG) ITU-R ITU-T (2013-2016)

  12. ITU-T Documents ITU-T Recommendations: socallednormativedocuments (more than 4000)  ITU-T Recs have non-mandatory status until they are adopted in national laws.  Technicalpapers(SG reports, casestudiesetc) Handbooks(on operation, network planning, quality of service, implementation guidelines)

  13. European TelecommunicationsStandards Institute ( European TelecommunicationsStandards Institute Officially recognized by the European Union as a European Standards Organization. ETSI is a not-for-profit organization with more than 750 ETSI member organizations drawn from 63 countries across 5 continents world-wide.

  14. ETSI Membership ( Nemzeti Média és Hírközlési Hatóság

  15. ETSI Products and Services ( European TelecommunicationsStandards Institute

  16. Different types of ETSI standards European TelecommunicationsStandards Institute Different types of documents allows us to meet the variety of needs within the different industries we serve: European Standard (EN) – Used when the document is intended to meet needs specific to Europe and requires transposition into national standards, or when the drafting of the document is required under a mandate from the European Commission (EC)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA). An EN is drafted by a Technical Committee and approved by European National Standards Organizations. ETSI Standard (ES) – Used when the document contains technical requirements. An ES is submitted to the whole ETSI membership for approval. ETSI Guide (EG) – Used for guidance to ETSI in general on the handling of specific technical standardization activities. It is submitted to the whole ETSI membership for approval.

  17. Different types of ETSI standards European TelecommunicationsStandards Institute ETSI Technical Specification (TS) – Used when the document contains technical requirements and it is important that it is available for use quickly. A TS is approved by the Technical Committee that drafted it. ETSI Technical Report (TR) – Used when the document contains explanatory material. A TR is approved by the Technical Committee that drafted it. ETSI Special Report (SR) – Used for various purposes, including to make information publicly available for reference. An SR is approved by the Technical Committee which produced it. ETSI Group Specification (GS) – Provides technical requirements or explanatory material or both. Produced and approved within our Industry Specification Groups (ISGs).

  18. HOW wecanfindtechnicalspecifications? European TelecommunicationsStandards Institute IMPORTANT! IF YOU'RE INTERESTED IN THE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AUTHENTIC SOURCES ALWAYS WORK! Use ETSI documentationslibary! ALL STANDARDS ARE AVAILABLE ON WEBPAGE AND FREE OF CHARGE! Let’slook:

  19. ETSI Clusters European TelecommunicationsStandards Institute ETSI clusters provide a simple, easy to grasp overview of ETSI activities in ICT standardization. grasp: tounderstandsthcompletely

  20. ThirdGenerationPartnership Project TechnicalCommittees 3GPP specialisedfor mobile broadbanstandards

  21. 3GPP the Main Body of Mobile CommunicatonsStandards Members : 3GPP produces Technical Specifications, to be transposed by relevant Standardization Bodies (Organizational Partners) into appropriate deliverables (e.g., standards).

  22. 3GPP SpecificationsReleases and Numbering The RELEASE is a group of specificitaions. FirstwasR99 (about 2000)! Then: R4…..R12 (Betterwaytofind mobile standards!)

  23. Internet EngineeringTaskForce • IETF is a large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. It is open to any interested individual. • Memos in the Requests for Comments (RFC) document series contain technical and organizational notes about the Internet. They cover many aspects of computer networking, including protocols, procedures, programs, and concepts, as well as meeting notes, opinions.

  24. IETF WG-k WorkingGroups (WGs) workonspecialfields:

  25. IETF RFC

  26. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  • IEEE is the world's largest professional association dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity.  • Its members inspire a global community through IEEE's highly cited publications, conferences, technology standards, and professional and educational activities. • IEEE’s roots go back to 1884 when electricity began to become a major influence in society. There was one major established electrical industry, the telegraph, which since the 1840s had come to connect the world with a data communications system faster than the speed of transportation. 

  27. IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  • more than 430,000 members in more than 160 countries, more than 50 percent of whom are from outside the United States; • more than 120,000 Student membersfrom 80 countries;  • 333 sections in ten geographic regions worldwide; • 432 affinity groups - IEEE Affinity Groups are non-technical sub-units . Eg. IEEE-USA Consultants' Network, Graduates of the Last Decade Young Professionals (YP), Women in Engineering (WIE), and Life Members (LM).

  28. IEEE Xplore Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  Date: 7 September 2014 Journalsfrom 1872!

  29. IEEE XploreStandards xpl/standards.jsp Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 

  30. IEEE standards Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  The bestknown IEEE standard is IEEE 802.11 WLAN

  31. HungarianAuthority Nemzeti Média és Hírközlési Hatóság Its task is to ensure the undisturbed operation, in compliance with pertaining legislation in force, of the media and the markets for electronic communications, postal and information technology services. The Authority has an active role in the work of international organisations: ITU, ETSI, IETF and others

  32. NMHH Main Activities Nemzeti Média és Hírközlési Hatóság Legistlation: Becoming familiar with the most important items of Hungarian legislation on the regulation of electronic communications, postal services, and the regulation of the IT and media markets (acts and decrees). Officialstatements: Statements include publication of notices on given procedures where the law requires publication through notice. Statements describing the details of given procedures and calling attention to them in this way help accurate high-standard fulfilment of provisions of law and supply of current information to the consumers and customers.

  33. NMHH Main Activities Nemzeti Média és Hírközlési Hatóság Frequency management:is an activity performed in order to ensure the undisturbed operation of radio communications and other, non-telecommunications services Services, appliances, constructions: the authority accepts and judges the notifications of services in conformity with legal prescriptions, registers the services and service providers belonging to its competence, determines the obligatory technical and operational conditions for sake of integrity of the communications network.

  34. NMHH Main Activities Nemzeti Média és Hírközlési Hatóság Numbering: the numbers, addresses and the ranges of those needed for operation of communications networks and for the provision of services - the identifiers – are scarce resources. The available identifiers are registered in the national allocation plan of identifiers which stipulates the distribution of all the identifiers among the activities and services, the type, allocation and dimension of identifiers. E-signature, E-advertisement: supervises the services and service providers connected with the electronic signature, and checks the operation of the organizations appointed for certifying the conformance of the electronic signature products.

  35. NMHH Main Activities • Informationon market: • Communicaton market data, reports, • Market analysis, • Market surveillance, • Communicationstatisticdatabase, • Market research

  36. Telecommunications Networks and their Scope

  37. TelecommunicationNetworks Network part which the end user does not see much

  38. TelecommunicationNetworks User part which the operator does not see much

  39. …and between.. which no one can see anything

  40. TelecommunicationNetworks Definition The electronic transmission of information over distances, called telecommunications, has become virtually inseparable from computers.Computers and telecommunications create value together. The information may be in the form of voice telephone calls, data, text, images, or video. Today, telecommunications are used to organize more or less remote computer systems. A telecommunications network is an arrangement of computing and telecommunications resources for communication of information between distant locations.

  41. TelecommunicationNetworks GeographicalScope 1. Terminals for accessing the network 2. Computersthat process information and are interconnected by the network 3. Telecommunications linksthat form a channel through which information is transmitted from a sending device to a receiving device. 4. Telecommunications equipment that facilitates the transmission of information. 5. Telecommunications software that controls message transmission over the network.

  42. GeographicalScope Wide Area Network Metropolitan Area Network Local Area Network PersonalArea Network

  43. Techniquesinradiocommunicaton

  44. Computer networks

  45. Basic topologies

  46. Wide Area Network Swicthing 1. Leased line: Point-to-Point connection between two computers or Local Area Networks (orusers), fix monthlyfee Safebutexpensive (e.g ATM bank automats) 2. Circuitswitched, (SC): A dedicated circuit path is created between end points. Best example is dialup connections (phonecall) Slow, nottooexpensive

  47. Wide Area Network Swicthing 3. Packetswiched (PS): The information is sentinseparatedpackets Connectionoriented: Devices transport packets via a shared single point-to-point or point-to-multipoint link across a carrier internetwork. Before information can be exchanged between two endpoints, they first establish a Virtual Circuit. Variable length packets are transmitted Connectionless: Between endpoints no connection is build; endpoints can just offer packets to the network, addressed to any other endpoint and the network will try to deliver the packet. As an example: the Internet 

  48. Wide Area Network Swicthing 4. Cellrelay : Similar to packet switching, but uses fixed length cells instead of variable length packets. Data is divided into fixed-length cells and then transported across virtual circuits Before 2000 this was seen as the best option for simultaneous use of voice and data. (ATM: AsynchronousTransferMode)

  49. CircuitSwitching (CS) • Phonecall (fix, mobile) • Data (modem) • Problems: lfSwitchingnode is overloadedtheconnectionisnotestablished • Ifconnection is established, servicesquality is good!

  50. PacketSwitching (PS) • Internet (fix, mobile) • Data, voice (VoIP), video, audio • Problems: packetdelay, congestioninnodes • Connectionestablished, butsomepacketsarelost (causesbadquality)