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2013 NCDOR Advanced Personal & Real Property Seminar. Bringing government, industry, and the public together to make North Carolina a leader in solar energy development. Lance Williams Manager of Site Development Strata Solar email@example.com Office: (919)-960-6015.
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2013 NCDOR Advanced Personal & Real Property Seminar Bringing government, industry, and the public together to make North Carolina a leader in solar energy development Lance Williams Manager of Site Development Strata Solar firstname.lastname@example.org Office: (919)-960-6015 Miriam Makhyoun Manager of Market Intelligence NC Sustainable Energy Association Miriam@EnergyNC.org Office: (919)-832-7601 x114
Jobs in NC Clean Energy Industries In 2012, the clean energy sector conservatively generated over $3.7 billion in North Carolina annual gross revenue from clean energy activities. North Carolina’s clean energy sector accounts for over 15,200 full-time equivalent (FTE) employees as of September, 2012. Over 200 companies indicate that they provide products and services to the national and international marketplace. Source: North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association 2012 Clean Energy Industries Census
North Carolina Leads in Solar • 501 solar companies, employing about 2,000 people • North Carolina Ranked 6th in nation for solar with 229 MW installed capacity and 5th for annual capacity in 2012 with 132 MW • Mostly from utility-scale projects Source: SEIA/GTM Research “U.S. Solar Market Insight 2012 Year-In-Review”
NC Registered Solar PV by Year Megawatts (MW) of Registered Solar PV Capacity in North Carolina Expected Online from 2006-2012 Notes: (a) Solar PV systems produce electricity in direct current (DC), which is converted by inverters to alternating current (AC), the typical current used throughout the U.S. electric grid. As a result, it is normal industry practice to report solar PV capacity in DC units. For the purpose of this report, for systems registered with AC capacity and an unknown DC capacity an 84% derate factor was assumed. 500 MW produces 717,300 MWh a year—enough to power over 59,775 homes! This equates to the displacement of 44,829 tons of CO2 equivalent a year or the planting of 224,145 trees per year! 21 Sources: North Carolina Utilities Commission, Carbonify, National Renewable Energy Laboratory System Advisor Model
Types of Solar: Solar Thermal vs. PV Thermal Photovoltaic (PV) Converts sunlight into electricity • Heats water instead of creating electricity • Slightly thicker panels than PV
Different Project Types 6.4 MW Project on Fuquay Farms, NC- Strata Solar 4 kW rooftop solar array- Morganton, NC 1 MW commercial rooftop project on an IKEA in Charlotte, NC- Strata Solar
Examples • Residential Rooftop • 2 kW • 8-10 panels • Commercial Rooftop • 974 kW • ~4,000 panels • ~5.8 acres • Utility Ground-mount • 1-20 MW (1,000- • >20,000 kW) • 3,000->80,000 panels • ~6->100 acres of land Source: Inhabitat.com Source: Canadian Solar
Solar Photovoltaic Installed Cost per Watt *Sources: North Carolina Utilities Commission, North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association a) Barbose et. al, Tracking the Sun, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2012
Equipment: Income Capitalization Approach
Equipment: Income Capitalization Approach, 2
Social and Environmental Impacts:Partnering with the Community • Counties (building and electrical permits) • NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources (land and water) • NC Department of Transportation (driveways) • Economic and Work Force Development and others • Community colleges • Local contractors • Farmers and businesses Source: Strata Solar, Kings Mountain, NC, 5 MW
Property Values • How do ground-mounted solar PV arrays adjacent to residential neighborhoods influence the property values in those neighborhoods? • Bottom Line: No research was found specific to ground-mounted solar PV and property values. • Municipalities that adopt zoning for solar facilities may want to consider encouraging project developers to include screening vegetation along site borders to minimize visual impacts on surrounding neighborhoods. • U.S. Department of Energy Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory concluded that household solar installation actually increases home property values. December 2012, Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources , Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Massachusetts Clean Energy Center
Protecting the Land:Measures Ensuring the Natural Environment • Conduct geo studies on the soil to determine if it can support pile-driving; using concrete as little as possible (e.g. inverter pads) • Disturb as little land as possible • Leave as much existing ground cover as possible • Agriculture is known to be more damaging to the soil than solar farms Source: REP Energy
Protecting the Land:Measures Ensuring the Natural Environment • Working with the Department of Transportation when a temporary road touches another major road • Temporary roads can be plastic laydowns instead of gravel • Leave as much existing ground cover as possible Source: 123rf
Double Cropping: Piedmont Biofuels & Southern Energy Management Pittsboro, NC From protecting tomatoes from rain (tomatoes do better if only their roots are fed), through shading cooler weather crops like salad and arugula, to providing support for trellises and other crop infrastructure—Sami Grover
Present-Use Value for Agriculture *Ownership, Size, Income, and Sound Management Test Agricultural land requires at least one 10-acre tract in actual production. The gross income required from agriculture is $1,000. Example: If a solar facility is in the same 15-acre parcel and 10 is covered by a solar facility, $1,000 gross income would allow it to pass the income test but since it does not pass the size test, it does not get PUV. If reversed—5 acres for solar and 10 for farming—it would pass both tests. Present Use Value Program Guide: http://www.dor.state.nc.us/publications/puv_guide.pdf
Qualifying Owners for PUV If owner is non-qualifying a rollback of three years plus current tax year’s taxes are due. Four categories of qualifying owners: A. Individuals B. Certain Business Entities C. Certain Trusts and Testamentary Trusts D. Certain Tenants in Common If owned by a business, “it seems reasonable that at least 50% of the business must be farming related, but the statutes do not explicitly make that statement.” Present Use Value Program Guide: http://www.dor.state.nc.us/publications/puv_guide.pdf
Social Benefits of Solar PV • A use for underused or no longer arable land • A net tax benefit through taxable infrastructure that does not burden existing infrastructure • Job-creation and training/certification in often rural areas • It helps farmers: Out of over 7,000 U.S. farms who responded to the 2009 USDA On-Farm Census stating they utilize solar energy, North Carolina had 104 farms with solar, 67 with PV panels; 55 with solar thermal panels • It saves businesses and residents money: Over the last decade, utility electricity prices have risen by 3% per year, while the cost of solar PV continues to decrease (30% in North Carolina from 2007—2011, according to the North Carolina Utilities Commission Docket Filings)
For More Information NC Department of Revenue Contacts Michael Brown email@example.com 919.733.7711 David Duty firstname.lastname@example.org
Scenarios of Present Use Values • Solar farm leases 35 acres of a 42-acre parcel. 30 acres of the property was farmed, all of which is now part of the 35-acre solar farm. Any change to real property value? • Solar farm leases 35 acres of a 42-acre parcel. Seven acres is still being farmed with a crop value of $500/acre/year. Any change to real property value?
Scenarios of Present Use Values, 2 III. Lease 35-acres, have 28-acres within the security fence, and plant soy beans on the remaining 7 acres. The solar farm operator leases the 7 acres outside of the fence to a farmer for rental income of $100 per acre. The farmer has gross revenue per acre on the farm of $500 per acre. Any change to real property value? Does it differ if the landowner is the “farmer” or just leases it to the “farmer”? IV. Present property is 53 acres not in present use but out in the country with Ag/Light Residential zoning. Solar Farm buys 35 acres of land and builds a solar farm. Any change to the real property tax value on either remaining parcel (35-acre parcel, and 18-acre parcel)?
Scenarios of Present Use Values, 3 V. Present property owns 53 acres not in present use but out in the country Ag/Light Residential zoning. Solar Farm buys 35 acres of land, zones that 35 acres only as light Industrial, and builds a solar farm. Any change to the real property tax value on either remaining parcel (35-acre parcel, and 18-acre parcel)? VI. Solar farm leases 35-acres of a 1000-acre parcel, which is mostly farmed. Any change in the real property value of the 1000-acre parcel?
Scenarios of Present Use Values, 4 VII. Solar farm subdivides and leases 35-acres of a 1000-acre parcel, which is mostly farmed. Any change in the real property value to either the 35-acre solar farm new parcel or the 965-acre parcel still being farmed?