Leadership and the role of a leader in physical activities. Mr P. Leighton Group Dynamics of Performance Sports Psychology
Today’s Session… • What makes a good leader? What are the 3 types of leader? • Critically analyse the different theories of leadership with reference to… • Trait Theory • SLT Theory • Interactionist Theory • Understand Chelladurai and the aspects of leadership. • Multidimensional model of sports leadership.
The Importance of Effective Leadership… • Successful teams have strong leaders. • Leadership is very clear in interactive games but less obvious in co-active situations. • Leaders have a dual function in ensuring player satisfaction while steering the group to success i.e. Fabio Capello. • What are the qualities of a leader?
The Autocratic Leader… • Autocratic leaders are TASK ORIENTATED. • These leaders make all the decisions. • They are AUTHORITARIAN and do not take into account the feelings of others. • They do not delegate responsibility. • They focus on group performance and achieving goals. • This is most effective when quick decisions are needed i.e. interactive games. • They are suitable for DANGEROUS or POTENTIALLY life-threatening situations i.e. outdoor education etc.
The Democratic Leader… • Shares decisions with the group and delegates responsibility. • They consult others and are interested in developing meaningful interpersonal relationships. • They believe in giving the performers “Ownership” of the task to each individual… Why? • Work harder? • Develop unity • Common purpose • Effective in a co-active situation or when time is not an issue.
Situation Favourableness… • Autocratic or task-orientated leaders are more effective in the most favourable and least favourable situations. Democratic or person-orientated leaders are more effective in moderately favourable situations…
Laissez-Faire Leadership… • The leader stands aside to allow the group to make their own decisions. • Loss of direction can happen if the leader is inadequate. • Lewin (1985) found that certain groups who were subjected to this style were more inclined to aggression towards each other whilst giving up easily when mistakes occur.
Emergent Leader… Already belongs to the group. Selection to this role can be formal or assumed and accepted by the group. Prescribed Leader… Selected from outside of the group and is an external appointment. Emergent and Prescribed Leaders…
The Model Explained… • Situational characteristics are environmental conditions. They include the following… • Type of activity- interactive or co-active? • Numbers in the team- 5 or 15? • Time constraints of play or overall game? • Considerations about the strengths of the opposition.
The Model Explained… • Leader characteristics include the following… • The skill and experience of the leader. • The personality of the leader, which may well be inclined towards a person or task orientated style.
The Model Explained… • Membership characteristics relate to the members and can include… • Age • Gender- male and female differences? • Motivation • Competence • Experience
Work for you… • For Monday… • Critical approach of leadership theories- own notes (pg 234) • Attempt set question and hand it to be marked (my tray in staffroom)