Advertising. Is it always good for you?. Advertising in TV. Children and adolescents view 40,000 ads per year on TV alone. Much of children's viewing occurs during prime time, which features nearly 16 minutes/hour of advertising.
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Advertising Is it always good for you?
Advertising in TV • Children and adolescents view 40,000 ads per year on TV alone. • Much of children's viewing occurs during prime time, which features nearly 16 minutes/hour of advertising. • A 30-second ad during the Super Bowl now costs $2.3 million but reaches 80 million people.
Television and Movie Theaters • A 2000 FTC investigation found that violent movies, music, and video games have been intentionally marketed to children and adolescents. • Movie theaters have agreed not to show trailers for R-rated movies before G-rated movies in response to the release of the FTC report, children continue to see advertising for violent media in other venues.
In Public Places and Magazines • M-rated video games, which according to the gaming industry's own rating system are not recommended for children younger than 17 years, are frequently advertised in movie theaters, video game magazines, and publications with high youth readership.
In the News -Boston Subway Bans GTA AdsBy Chris Kohler EmailDecember 13, 2006 | 3:37:43 PM Massachusetts Bay Transport Authority has banned advertisements for M-rated video games from appearing in Boston's subway system
In Public Places and Magazines Transportation systems need funds and alcohol companies are willing to provide money for ad space.
A Sobering Plan to End Subway Alcohol Advertising Posted by Michael Clancy at 11:19 AM, November 12, 2007 Alcohol advertising might pump much-needed revenue into the Metropolitan Transportation Authority’s offers, but Brooklyn Assemblyman Felix Ortiz is moving to stop such spirituous solicitations, all in the name of public health and, of course, the children.
Print Media • According to the Consumer's Union, more than 160 magazines are now targeted at children. • Young people see 45% more beer ads and 27% more ads for hard liquor in teen magazines than adults do in their magazines. • Despite the Master Settlement Agreement with the tobacco industry in 1998, tobacco advertising expenditures in 38 youth-oriented magazines amounted to $217 million in 2000.
Tobacco Advertising • Tobacco manufacturers spend $30 million/day ($11.2 billion/year) on advertising and promotion. • Two unique and large longitudinal studies have found that approximately one third of all adolescent smoking can be attributed to tobacco advertising and promotions. • More than 20 studies have found that children exposed to cigarette ads or promotions are more likely to become smokers themselves. • Recent evidence has emerged that tobacco companies have specifically targeted teenagers as young as 13 years of age.
Rep. Larry Crow, R-Palm Harbor, holds up a "Joe Camel" ad from a teen magazine on the House floor showing the cigarette mascot.
Associated Press / December 5, 2007 HARRISBURG, Pa. - An illustrated section packaged with Camel ads in Rolling Stone magazine violates the tobacco industry's nine-year-old promise not to use cartoons to sell cigarettes, prosecutors in various states said yesterday.
In 2000, tobacco companies spent $59.6 million in advertising for the most popular youth brands in youth magazines. That year, magazine ads for the three most popular youth brands (Marlboro, Newport, and Camel) reached more than 80% of young people in the U.S. This is a Chinese ad. Due to Chinese government regulations on cigarette advertising, the promotional ashtrays cannot carry the Malboro logo, but they can suggest the brand identity through their colors.
Alcohol Advertising • Alcohol manufacturers spend $5.7 billion/year on advertising and promotion. • Young people typically view 2,000 beer and wine commercials annually, with most of the ads concentrated in sports programming. • During prime time, only 1 alcohol ad appears every 4 hours; yet, in sports programming, the frequency increases to 2.4 ads per hour.
Alcohol Advertising Youth see more TV commercials for beer than for sneakers, gum or jeans "The industry's own guidelines are so permissive that, in practice, they amount to no limits at all. It is like a promise not to drive faster than 125 miles per hour – that doesn't slow you down much. These industry codes do little to protect youth from ads that promote alcohol consumption.” One quarter of alcohol advertising on television in 2001 was more likely to be seen by youth than adults. Of the 208,909 alcohol commercials on television in 2001, underage youth, ages 12 to 20, were more likely than adults of legal drinking age to have seen 51,084 of them or 24.5%. Dr A. Kessler Dean of the Yale University School of Medicine and former U.S Food and Drug Administration Commissioner
Alcohol Advertising • Research has found that adolescent drinkers are more likely to have been exposed to alcohol advertising. • Given that children begin making decisions about alcohol at an early age—probably during grade school—exposure to beer commercials represents a significant risk factor.
This ad for Heineken beer was in the October issue of ESPN Magazine. The ad is from a joint advertising campaign for Heineken and Nintendo called "Football Action at Your Fingertip." Winners receive a Nintendo Video Game Cube.
This ad for St. Pauli Girl beer appeared in Sports Illustrated,, Maxim, Aug 2004, and other publications regularly read by youths.
Popular Brands • Often make fun of drinking, sending a message that it is “OK”
Teen clothing marketer, Abercrombie & Fitch, has once again started alcoholizing its products, its catalog, and its website advertising. Some of the company's t-shirts, sweat shirts, and jeans feature messages that blatantly encourage or trivialize heavy – and potentially dangerous – drinking. The products, such as the shirts below, target high school and college-age youth. We found them and others on the A&F website and in the company's fall "Back to School" catalog.
Cigarette and Alcohol Advertising • "Just Say No" as a message to teenagers about drugs seems doomed to failure given that $11 billion/year is spent on cigarette advertising
The Internet • More than 100 commercial Web sites promote alcohol products. • The content of these sites varies widely, from little more than basic brand information to chat rooms, "virtual bars," drink recipes, games, contests, and merchandise catalogues. Many of these sites use slick promotional techniques to target young people.
The Internet • In 1998, the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (Pub L No. 105–277) was passed, which mandates that commercial Web sites cannot knowingly collect information from children younger than 13 years. These sites are required to provide notice on the site to parents about their collection, use, and disclosure of children's personal information and must obtain "verifiable parental consent" before collecting, using, or disclosing this information. • Have you ever been asked personal information on a web site?
Marketing Techniques • Advertisers have traditionally used techniques to which children and adolescents are more susceptible, such as product placements in movies and TV shows, tie-ins between movies and fast food restaurants, tie-ins between TV shows and toy action figures or other products, kids' clubs that are linked to popular shows, and celebrity endorsements.
Pixar Toys at Brazilian McDonalds 3.11.2006 www.hotrocket.ca/.../2006_03_01_archive.html
Food Advertising and Obesity • Advertisers spend more than $2.5 billion/year to promote restaurants and another $2 billion to promote food products. • On TV, of the estimated 40 000 ads per year that young people see, half are for food, especially sugared cereals and high-calorie snacks. • Healthy foods are advertised less than 3% of the time; children rarely see a food advertisement for broccoli.
The Fast Food Dude: Burger King Cooks Up an Indy Tie-InPDT on Tuesday, May 27, 2008 'Bite into adventure!" That's the slogan for Burger King's new Indy Double Whopper Sandwich ($4.99, $6.99 with medium fries and beverage). It's a tie-in to the new Indiana Jones movie, which apparently all of North America saw simultaneously in a theater with me in Corona (and most of Canada was kicking my chair). Making that burger look GOOOD!! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fUjz_eiIX8k&NR=1
Food Advertising and Obesity • Fast food conglomerates are using toy tie-ins with major children's motion pictures to try to attract young people. • Nearly 20% of fast food ads now mention a toy premium in their commercials. • Several studies document that young children request more junk food (defined as foods with high-caloric density but very low nutrient density) after viewing commercials. • In 1 study, the amount of TV viewed per week correlated with requests for specific foods and with caloric intake. • At the same time, advertising healthy foods has been shown to increase wholesome eating in children as young as 3 to 6 years of age.
Fast food tie-in benefits Simpsons Movie ticket sales - by Jacquie Bowser, Brand Republic 24-Aug-07, 09:10 LONDON - Consumers are more likely to go see a movie when it is advertised within a food commercial, rather than if it is advertised alone, according to new research. People who saw a Burger King television ad featuring 'The Simpsons Movie' were 40% more likely to go and see the film than those who were only exposed to the television, radio and in-theatre trailers promoting only the movie.
Its Batman vs. Indy for Summer Movie Candy Tie-insJune 11, 2008 Let no summer blockbuster be without a candy partner. "Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull" has M&M/Mars. Now, the Hershey Company has the Batman sequel, "The Dark Knight." Later this month, Hershey will be offering special editions of its Reese's peanut butter cups, Reese's Pieces and Kit Kat candy bars to tie in with the movie.
Marketing Techniques • Cellular phones are currently being marketed to 6- to 12-year-olds, with the potential for directing specific advertisers to children and preteens. • Coca-Cola reportedly paid Warner Bros. Studios $150 million for the global marketing rights to the movie "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone." • Nearly 20% of fast food restaurant ads now mention a toy premium in their ads.
Thursday, 18 October, 2001, 12:07 GMT 13:07 UK Coke attacked for Harry Potter links Drinks maker Coca-Cola has come under fire from Harry Potter fans for using images of the popular character in its latest advertising campaign.
Future Marketing Techniques • In the near future, children watching a TV program will be able to click an on-screen link and go to a Web site during the program • Interactive games and promotions on digital TV will have the ability to lure children away from regular programming, encouraging them to spend a long time in an environment that lacks clear separation between content and advertising. • Interactive technology may also allow advertisers to collect vast amounts of information about children's viewing habits and preferences and target them on the basis of that information.
Drug Advertising • Nearly $4 billion/year is spent on prescription drug advertising. • Is such advertising effective? A recent survey of physicians found that 92% of patients had requested an advertised drug. • In addition, children and teenagers may get the message that there is a drug available to cure all ills and heal all pain, a drug for every occasion.
Sexy Images in Advertising • Sexy images are used in commercials to sell everything from beer to shampoo to cars. • New research is showing that teenagers' exposure to explicit content in the media may be responsible for earlier onset of sexual behavior. • American advertising also frequently uses female models who are anorectic in appearance and, thus, may contribute to the development of a distorted body self-image and abnormal eating behaviors in young girls.
Virginia Learns To Live With Abercrombie 5:32 PM on Mon Feb 4 2008By Hamilton Nolan Just two days after citing an Abercrombie store in Virginia Beach for obscenity for their sexy ads, police have dropped the charges. "Police confiscated the ads Saturday, saying they violated the city's obscenity law because some of the models were partially nude.
Model's Death from Anorexia Spurs WarningsBy Stephen M. SilvermanOriginally posted Friday November 17, 2006 10:40 AM EST The death Tuesday of anorexic model Ana Carolina Reston has those close to her hoping the fashion industry will finally wake up to the dangers of the eating disorder. Reston, 21, a Brazilian model who weighed only 88 pounds at the time of her death, succumbed to a generalized infection caused by anorexia nervosa, officials at Sao Paulo's Servior Publico Hospital said.
Shampoo Ad The hair is shiny, but why is she wearing so little? Perfect model? Maybe not.. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pcFlxSlOKNI
Advertising in Schools • Ads are now appearing on school buses, in gymnasiums, on book covers, and even in bathroom stalls. • More than 200 school districts nationwide have signed exclusive contracts with soft drink companies. • These agreements specify the number and placement of soda-vending machines, even though schools risk losing federal subsidies for their free breakfast and lunch programs if they serve soda in their cafeterias. • In addition, there are more than 4500 Pizza Hut chains and 3000 Taco Bell chains in school cafeterias around the country.
Advertising in Schools http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/Commercial-Activities-In-Schools.htm Ad at a bus stop Ad in a computer lab
The Good News?? • There is some good news, however. In May, 2006, the nation's largest beverage distributors agreed to halt nearly all sales of sodas to public schools and sell only water, unsweetened juice, and low-fat milk in elementary and middle schools. Diet sodas would be sold only in high schools.
Action Ideas • Limit total noneducational screen time to no more than 2 hours/day,97 which will limit exposure to advertising of all kinds. • Write letters to advertisers if they see inappropriate ads (letters can be addressed to the Children's Advertising Review Unit, Council of Better Business Bureaus, 845 Third Ave, New York, NY 10022). • Implement media education programs in schools that teach about the effects of advertising on children and adolescents. The federal government should help underwrite the cost of establishing and disseminating such programs.
Action • Ask Congress to restrict alcohol advertising to what is known as "tombstone advertising," in which only the product is shown, not cartoon characters or attractive women. • Ask Congress to implement a ban on junk-food advertising during programming that is viewed predominantly by young children. • Ask Congress to increase funding for public TV—the sole source of high-quality, educational, noncommercial programming for children.
Action • Ask Congress and the Federal Communications Commission to prohibit interactive advertising to children in digital TV. • Work with the entertainment industry to ensure that the advertising of violent media to children does not occur, that product placements in movies and TV do not occur, and that the dissemination and enforcement of the individual industries' own rating systems is facilitated.
References Source of Data: Pediatrics: Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. PEDIATRICS Vol. 118 No. 6 December 2006, pp. 2563-2569.Online http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/6/2563, November 4, 2008