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OFFICE OF SCIENCE. Basic Energy Sciences. Board on Physics and Astronomy Spring Meeting Keck Center of the National Academies April 24, 2009. Harriet Kung Director, Office of Basic Energy Sciences Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. What’s New. Staffing
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OFFICE OFSCIENCE Basic Energy Sciences Board on Physics and Astronomy Spring Meeting Keck Center of the National Academies April 24, 2009 Harriet Kung Director, Office of Basic Energy Sciences Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy
What’s New • Staffing • The BESAC “New Era” Subcommittee Report:“New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future” • Budget • H.R. 1, The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 • FY 2009 Budget Appropriation • EFRC and SISGR Updates • LCLS First Light
BES Budget and Planning Bob Astheimer,Technical Advisor Margie Davis, Financial ManagementVacant, Program Support Specialist Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division Scattering and Instrumentation Sciences Helen Kerch Cheryl Howard, P.A. Fundamental Interactions Michael Casassa Robin Felder, P.A. Materials Discovery, Design, and Synthesis Arvind Kini Kerry Gorey, P.A. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics Jim Horwitz Marsophia Agnant, P.A. Photo- and Bio- Chemistry Rich Greene Sharron Watson, P.A. Chemical Transformations John Miller Teresa Crockett, P.A. Office of Basic Energy Sciences Linda Horton, Director Ehsan Khan, Program Manager Christie Ashton, Program Analyst Charnice Waters, Secretary Eric Rohlfing, Director Diane Marceau, Program Analyst Michaelene Kyler-King, Program Assistant Harriet Kung, Director Wanda Smith, Administrative Specialist Materials Chemistry Dick Kelley Jim McBreen, BNLVacant Exp. Cond. Mat. Phys. Andy Schwartz Doug Finnemore, AmesVacant X-ray Scattering Lane Wilson Biomolecular Materials Mike Markowitz Theo. Cond. Mat. Phys. Michael Lee Arun Bansil, NEU Jim Davenport, BNL Kim Ferris, PNNL Neutron Scattering Thiyaga P. Thiyagarajan Synthesis and ProcessingBonnie GerstenJeff Tsao, SNLMike Coltrin, SNL Physical Behavior of Materials Refik Kortan Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies Jane Zhu Tech. Coordination Program Management John VetranoVacant Mechanical Behavior and Radiation Effects John Vetrano DOE EPSCoR* Tim FitzsimmonsHelen Farrell, INL * Experimental Program toStimulate Competitive Research L E G E N D Detailee (from DOE laboratories) Detailee, ½ time Detailee, ½ time, not at HQ Detailee, ¼ time, not at HQ On detail from SC-2, ½ time IPA (Interagency Personnel Act) P.A. Program Assistant April 2009 Posted 01APR09 BES Operations Rich Burrow, DOE Technical Office Coordination Don Freeburn, DOE and Stakeholder Interactions Ken Rivera, Laboratory Infrastructure / ES&H Katie Perine, Program Analyst / BESACVacant, Technology Office Coordination Materials Sciences and Engineering Division Scientific User Facilities Division Pedro Montano, Director Linda Cerrone, Program Support Specialist Rocio Meneses, Program Assistant Operations Construction X-ray and Neutron Scattering Facilities Roger KlaffkyVacant Linac Coherent Light Source Tom Brown Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences Jeff Krause Solar Photochemistry Mark Spitler Catalysis Science Raul Miranda Paul Maupin Heavy ElementChemistry Lester Morss Norm Edelstein, LBNL Nanoscience Centers & E-beam Centers Tof CarimVacant NSLS II Tom Brown Gas-PhaseChemical Physics Wade Sisk Larry Rahn, SNL Photosynthetic Systems Gail McLean Separations and Analysis Bill Millman Larry Rahn, SNL Accelerator and Detector R&D Vacant Spallation Neutron Source Upgrades Tom Brown Condensed-Phase and Interfacial Mol. Science Greg Fiechtner Physical Biosciences Bob Stack Facility Coordination, Metrics, Assessment Van Nguyen TEAM Vacant Computational and Theoretical Chemistry Mark Pederson Geosciences Nick Woodward Pat Dobson, LBNL Technology Office Coordination Marvin SingerVacant Instrument MIEs (SING, LUSI, etc.) Vacant Advanced Light Source User Support Building Tom Brown
Energy and Science Grand Challenges • BESAC and BES Reports • Secure Energy Future, 2002 • Hydrogen Economy, 2003 • Solar Energy Utilization, 2005 • Superconductivity,2006 • Solid-state Lighting, 2006 • Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, 2006 • Clean and Efficient Combustion of Fuels, 2006 • Electrical Energy Storage, 2007 • Geosciences: Facilitating 21st Century Energy Systems, 2007 • Materials Under Extreme Environments, 2007 • Directing Matter and Energy: Five Grand Challenges for Science and the Imagination, 2007 • New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future, 2008 http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html
Co-Chairs: George Crabtree (ANL) and Marc Kastner (MIT) Members: Michelle Buchanan, Thomas Mallouk, John Sarrao, Michael Klein, Arthur Nozik, Julia Phillips, Sue Clark, Frank DiSalvo, Don DePaolo, Simon Bare, Wayne Hendrickson, Wolfgang Eberhardt, Franz Himpsel, Michael Norman, Andrea Cavalleri, Carl Lineberger, Yet-Ming Chiang, Pat Looney • Charge: • Summarize the range of scientific research directions that emerged from the 2002 BESAC report Basic Research Needs for a Secure Energy Future, the follow-on BES BRNs reports, and the BESAC report “Directing Matter and Energy: Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination.” Identify key cross-cutting scientific themes that are common to these reports. • Summarize the implementation strategies, and human resources that will be required to accomplish the science described in the aforementioned reports. New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html • Three Strategic Goals: • Making fuels from sunlight • Generating electricity without carbon dioxide emissions • Revolutionizing energy efficiency and use
Energy Sustainability and Materials Sustainable Energy Materials Diverse Functions PV, Superconductors, Photocatalysts Battery Electrodes Electrolytic Membranes Active Function: Converting Energy Value: Functionality 30 year Lifetime Traditional Energy Materials Fuels: coal, oil, gas CH0.8, CH2, CH4 Passive Function: Combustion Value: Commodities High Energy Content Greater Sustainability = Greater Complexity, higher functional materials
Solar Energy Utilization: PV Production Learning Curve 1976 “80% Learning Curve”:Module price decreases by20% for every doubling ofcumulative production Silicon Wafer Technologies 2010 2015 2005 80% Note: By 2020, current trajectory will supply 16 GW (peak) (~3.5 GW avg) in U.S. whereas at least 425 GW will be needed just for electricity, and ~2000 GW for fuel.
Future scenarios: Crystalline silicon Thin films/Concentrators New technologies Solar Energy Utilization: Breakthroughs Needed PV grid parity (~$0.10/kWh) is projected by 2015. But this is not good enough for massive use of solar power. That would require solar at $0.02/kWh (cost of coal). And that bold goal requires basic research and resultant disruptive technology. New Science is required to move us off the present curve
30 Energy Storage Density gasoline ethanol 20 hydrogen compounds (target) methanol Energy/volume combustion chemical + fuel cells = electricity 10 batteries compressed hydrogen gas super capacitors 0 0 10 20 30 40 Energy/weight Enabling Technologies: Storing Energy • Store intermittent solar and wind electricity • Electrify transportation with plug-in hybrids and electric cars x2-5 increase in battery energy density; x10-20 increase through chemical storage + fuel cells
Controlling Materials and Chemistries in ultra-small and ultra-fast regimes Computer modeling Complex materials Nanoscience New Science: Mastering Complexity • A New Era of Science: • Build materials with atom-by-atom chemical precision • Predict behavior of new materials • Design novel materials and chemistries for specific tasks
BESAC Subcommittee on Facing our Energy Challenges in a New Era of Science Recommendations: • Control science with complex functional materials. • Increase the rate of discoveries and establish US leadership in next-generation carbon-free energy technologies. • ‘Dream teams’ of highly educated talent, equipped with forefront tools, and focused on the most pressing challenges • Aggressively recruit the best talent through a series of workforce development. http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/NSSSEF_rpt.pdf
U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science FY 2009 Budget Request Office of Science
Basic Energy Sciences The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 BES will invest $524.3 million of the ARRA funding for the following six activities: • $150.0M to accelerate the civilian construction of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory; • $14.7M to complete the construction of the User Support Building (USB) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; • $33.6M to complete the Linac Coherent Light Source(LCLS) Ultrafast Science Instruments (LUSI) MIE project at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; • $25.0M for capital equipment replenishment and augmentation at the five BES Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs); • $24.0M for four synchrotron radiation light sources capital equipments, AIP, other upgrades • $277.0M for Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs).
Basic Energy Sciences FY 2009 Appropriations FY 2009 Omnibus Appropriations Act Division C - Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2009 “Basic Energy Sciences.—The bill provides $1,571,972,407 for this program. Within this amount, $17,000,000 is provided for the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR). Full funding is provided to support the operations of the major scientific user facilities and the five Nanoscale Science Research Centers, as well as additional instrumentation for the Spallation Neutron Source and the Linac Coherent Light Source. The control level is at the Basic Energy Sciences level.” http://docs.house.gov/rules/omni/jes/divcjes_111_hromni2009_jes.pdf FY2008 Enacted FY2009 Request Omnibus Bill Omnibus Bill vs. Enacted Omnibus Bill vs. Request 1,269,902 1,568,160 1,571,972 +302,070 +3,812 Total, BES (in thousands)
History of Request vs. Appropriation (FY08 Constant Dollars)* * Prior to FY 2008 Supplemental & FY 2009 Recovery Act Funding
Light Sources 339.4 Neutron Sources 251.4 101.2 NSRC OPC 27 100 FY 2009 BES BudgetOmnibus Appropriations Act 2009 • Core research programs • $100M for Energy Frontier Research Centers • ~$55M for single investigator and small group awards for grand science and energy research (including one-time funding for mid-scale instrumentation and ultrafast science) • Facility-related research (detectors, optics, etc.) ~ $10M • $17M for EPSCoR (vs. request of $8.24M) • Scientific user facilities operations • Full funding for: • Synchrotron light sources • Neutron scattering facilities • Electron microcharacterization facilities • Nanoscale Science Research Centers • Construction and instrumentation • Full funding for: • National Synchrotron Light Source-II • Linac Coherent Light Source + Linac operations + instruments • Advanced Light Source User Support Building • Spallation Neutron Source instruments • PULSE Building Appropriation $ 1,572M 34 5 35.3 MIE GPP SBIR MSE Research MSE Research Facilities Ops 273.3 CSGB Research 719 CSGB Research Facilities Ops 239.5 EFRC SUF Research 20.4 Construction 145.5
Energy Frontier Research Center Tackling our energy challenges in a new era of science Engaging the Talents of the Nation’s Researchers for the Broad Energy Sciences: BES announced the initiation of EFRCs to accelerate the scientific breakthroughs needed to create advanced energy technologies for the 21st century. The EFRCs will pursue the fundamental understanding necessary to meet the global need for abundant, clean, and economical energy. • EFRC will pursue collaborative fundamental research that addresses both energy challenges and science grand challenges in areas such as: • Solar Energy Utilization Geosciences for Nuclear Waste and CO2 Storage • Catalysis for Energy Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems • Electrical Energy Storage Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels • Solid State Lighting Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use • Superconductivity Materials Under Extreme Environments • Other Conversion of Biological Feedstock to Portable Fuels
Timeline of the EFRC Solicitation July 09 Apr 09 Jan 08 April 08 July 08 Oct 08 Jan 09 Continuing Resolution through 3/6/09 FY2008 FY 2009 2/2008 BES rolled-out EFRC in FY2009 Budget Request & BESAC 4/2008 EFRC FOA issued Amended 4/2008 6/2008 9/2008 7/2008 BES Received 251 Letters of Intent 10/2008 BES 261 Full Proposals Received BES Conducted Merit Reviews Awards Announcement
Single-Investigator & Small-Group Research Single-Investigator and Small-Group Research (SISGR) will significantly enhance the core research programs in BES and pursue the fundamental understanding necessary to meet the global need for abundant, clean, and economical energy. Awards are planned for three years, with funding in the range of $150-300 K/yr for single-investigator awards and $500-1500 K/yr for small-group awards Areas of interest include: Grand challenge science: ultrafast science; chemical imaging, complex & emergent behavior Use inspired discovery science: basic research for electrical energy storage; advanced nuclear energy systems; solar energy utilization; hydrogen production, storage, and use; geological CO2 sequestration; other basic research areas identified in BESAC and BES workshop reports with an emphasis on nanoscale phenomena Tools for grand challenge science: midscale instrumentation; accelerator and detector research (exclude capital equipment supports)
Energy Storage 16% Energy Sources 31% Energy Efficiency 10% Cross-cutting Grand Science Challenges and Tools 15% 28% SISGR Solicitation Status879 Whitepapers; ~ 88% from Universities; 11% DOE Labs; 1% Other Institutions • Electrical Energy Storage • Hydrogen Research • Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems • Solar Energy Utilization • Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide • Solid-state Lighting • Clean and Efficient Combustion • Superconductivity • Catalysis for Energy • Materials under Extreme Environments • Ultrafast Science • Chemical Imaging • Mid-scale Instrumentation • Complex Systems and Emergent Behavior
Timeline of the SISGR July 09 Apr 09 Jan 09 Jan 08 April 08 July 08 Oct 08 Continuing Resolution through 3/6/09 FY2008 FY 2009 2/2008 BES discussed SISGR Plan at BESAC 4/2008 BES issued SISGR web notice by 10/2008 BES Received ~ 880 whitepapers 3/2009 BES to notify PIs of whitepaper decisions (tentative) 4/2009 Full proposals due to BES (tentative) 6/2009 BES to issue SISGR awards (tentative)
1992: Proposal (Pellegrini), Study Group(Winick) 1998: LCLS Design Study Report SLAC-521 2000: LCLS- the First Experiments (Shenoy & Stohr) SLAC-R-611 2004: DOE 20-Year Facilities Roadmap 1994: National Academies Report http://books.nap.edu/books/NI000099/html/index.html 1996: Design Study Group (M. Cornacchia) 1997: BESAC (Birgeneau) Report http://www.sc.doe.gov/production/bes/BESAC/reports.html 1999: BESAC (Leone) Report http://www.sc.doe.gov/production/bes/BESAC/reports.html $1.5M/year, 4 years 2001: DOE Critical Decision 0 2002: LCLS Conceptual Design DOE Critical Decision 1 $36M for Project Engineering Design 2003: DOE Critical Decision 2A $30M in 2005 for Long Lead Procurements 2005: Critical Decision 2B: Define Project Baseline Critical Decision 3A: Long-Lead Acquisitions 2006: Critical Decision 3B: Groundbreaking 2009: First Light 2010: Project Completion
Injector (35º) at 2-km point Existing 1/3 Linac (1 km) (with modifications) New e- Transfer Line (340 m) X-ray Transport Line (200 m) Undulator (130 m) Near Experiment Hall (underground) X-Ray Transport/Optics/Diagnostics Far Experiment Hall (underground) Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC
Atomic Physics (LCLS)Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics (LCLS) 8/2009 Plasma and Warm Dense Matter Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) (OFES? awaiting CD-0) Nanoscale Dynamics Coherent scattering at the in Condensed matter (LUSI) nanoscale (XCS) (LUSI) Structural Studies on Single Nano-particle and single Particles and Biomolecules molecule (non-periodic) (LUSI) imaging (CXI) (LUSI) Femtochemistry Pump/probe diffraction (LUSI) dynamics (XPP) (LUSI) Soft X-Ray Imaging & Spectroscopy (SXR ) (DESY + +MPI+CFEL+Stanford+LBNL) SLAC Report 611 Program developed by international team of scientists working with accelerator and laser physics communities First Experiments Six Instruments Concepts
Construction >90% complete
Office of Basic Energy Sciences Program Web Links: BES page: http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/bes.html BES Staff Contact: http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/besstaff.html Proposal Submission: http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/grants.html BES Workshop Reports: http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html EFRC: http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/EFRC.html SISGR: http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/SISGR.html Thank You!
Basic and Applied R&D CoordinationHow Nature Works … to … Design and Control … to … Technologies for the 21st Century Technology Maturation & Deployment Grand Challenges Discovery and Use-Inspired Basic Research How nature works Materials properties and chemical functionalities by design Applied Research • Controlling materials processes at the level of quantum behavior of electrons • Atom- and energy-efficient syntheses of new forms of matter with tailored properties • Emergent properties from complex correlations of atomic and electronic constituents • Man-made nanoscale objects with capabilities rivaling those of living things • Controlling matter very far away from equilibrium • Basic research for fundamental new understanding on materials or systems that may revolutionize or transform today’s energy technologies • Development of new tools, techniques, and facilities, including those for the scattering sciences and for advanced modeling and computation • Basic research, often with the goal of addressing showstoppers on real-world applications in the energy technologies • Research with the goal of meeting technical milestones, with emphasis on the development, performance, cost reduction, and durability of materials and components or on efficient processes • Proof of technology concepts • Scale-up research • At-scale demonstration • Cost reduction • Prototyping • Manufacturing R&D • Deployment support BESAC & BES Basic Research Needs Workshops BESAC Grand Challenges Panel DOE Technology Office/Industry Roadmaps