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Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds. Covalent bonding involves sharing electrons between atoms. Nonpolar covalent bond – equal sharing of electrons between two atoms. Both atoms have same attraction for shared pair. Example : H – H.

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polar and nonpolar covalent bonds
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
  • Covalent bonding involves sharing electrons between atoms.
  • Nonpolar covalent bond – equal sharing of electrons between two atoms.
  • Both atoms have same attraction for shared pair.
  • Example: H – H
slide2

Polar covalent bond – unequal sharing of electrons between atoms.

  • One atom has greater attraction for shared pair. (Tug – of – War)
  • Example: H – Cl
  • This creates partial (d) charges on each atom in the bond.
slide3

The atom that has a greater attraction for shared electrons takes on a partialnegativecharge and the atom with a weaker attraction takes on a partial positivecharge.

  • How can you determine which atom has greater attraction for electrons?
electronegativity
Electronegativity
  • Electronegativity – measures the ability of an atom to attract electrons from an another atom.
  • Scale in which atom is assigned a number between 0 and 4.
  • Higher the number, the stronger the attraction for electrons.
  • Atom with highest electronegativity is fluorine. Fluorine’s value is 4.
electronegativity trends
Electronegativity Trends
  • Metals tend to have lowelectronegativities; while nonmetalstend to have highelectronegativities.
  • Electronegativitiesdecreaseas you go down a group.
  • Electronegativities generally increase as you go across a period until you reach the noble gases.
slide7

Can use the difference in electronegativities between two atoms to predict the type of bond formed between the atoms.

sample problem
Sample Problem:
  • Use electronegativities to determine the type of bond that will form. If the bond is polar, decide which atom is partially negative and which is slightly positive.

(a) C and S

(b) Na and O

(c) P and Cl