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Matter and Biogeochemical Cycles. Matter. All material in the universe that has mass and occupies space is called matter. Atoms - smallest unit of an element Example: Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, gold , etc. Matter. Atom’s nucleus includes: protons (+ charge) n eutrons (no charge)

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matter
Matter
  • All material in the universe that has mass and occupies space is called matter.
  • Atoms- smallest unit of an element

Example: Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, gold, etc

matter1
Matter
  • Atom’s nucleus includes:
    • protons (+ charge)
    • neutrons (no charge)

Electrons (- charge) orbiting around the nucleus.

slide4

Molecules- a cluster of atoms with unique characteristics. Organic compounds have carbon. Inorganic compounds do not have carbon. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing ONLY hydrogen and carbon.

slide5

Macromolecules are the building blocks of life.

    • Proteins
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acids
slide6

Acids, Bases & pH

  • pH: how basic or acidic a solution is
  • pH Scale
slide7

Biosphere: all the planet’s living, once living and nonliving parts of the environment and how they interact.

  • Abiotic: non-living
  • Biotic: living
slide8

Geosphere – made of all the rock at and below Earth’s surface

  • Lithosphere – hard rock just on or below the Earth’s surface
slide9

Atmosphere – gaseous envelope around the planet

  • Hydrosphere – Earth’s supply of water
biogeochemical cycles
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • BIO – refer to the LIVINGorganisms
  • GEO – refers to the Earth, rock and LAND.
  • CHEMICAL – molecules, REACTIONSand atoms.
biogeochemical cycles1
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Matter cycles through the environment. Nutrients are matter that organisms require for life process, circulate throughout the environment in biogeochemical cycles.
biogeochemical cycles2
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Law of Conservation of Matter:
  • Matter can be transformed, but cannot be created or destroyed.
water cycle
Water Cycle
  • The water cycle summarizes how water plays a role in our environment.
unique properties of water
Unique properties of water

1) Cohesion – water molecule can stick to themselves

2) Expands when freezes

3) Capillary action

label the water cycle diagram
Label the water cycle diagram
  • Aquifers
  • Condensation
  • Evaporation
  • Precipitation
  • Surface runoff
  • Groundwater
  • Transpiration
label the water cycle diagram1
Label the water cycle diagram

Condensation

Condensation

Precipitation

Transpiration

Evaporation

Surface runoff

Ground water

Aquifers

slide18

http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/watercycle/index.htmlhttp://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/watercycle/index.html

carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle

Carbon is a building blockof life. All organic compounds have carbon.

Carbon is essential for DNA, fats, proteins, carbohydrates& other substances.

carbon cycle1
Carbon Cycle

Carbon in gas form is carbon dioxide & it’s a greenhousegas that helps to maintain earth’s temperature.

Carbon is stored in the ocean, atmosphere & rocks.

carbon cycle2
Carbon Cycle

Places where a lot of carbon is stored are called carbon sinks.

slide23

Pathway 1

1. Carbon moves between the atmosphere, oceans & living things.

slide24

2. Through photosynthesis, plants use CO2 from the air & ocean to make glucose (organic compound….C6H12O6)

slide27

5. Decomposition of living things also returns carbon to the soil, water & air in the form of carbon dioxide.

pathway 2
Pathway 2

1. Carbon travels from living things to rocks & back to air or water where living things will use it again.

slide29

Example: Shells of marine animals contain carbon. These shells fall to bottom of ocean when they die & pile up. They are covered with sediment & compacted to form rock (limestone). Erosion on land eventually dissolve the carbon containing minerals to air & water.

pathway 3
Pathway 3

1. This pathway involves the formation & burning of fossil fuels.

2. Oil & natural gas form from the remains of deadorganisms.

slide32

3. After buried for a long time, a chemical change takes place & it turns them into petroleum.

4. This process takes millions of years.

slide33

5. When the oil is removed & we burn it. The combustion releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Then it’s available plants to use for photosynthesis.

ways humans affect carbon cycle
Ways HUMANS affect Carbon Cycle

Deforestation: removing trees that absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Fewer trees mean less carbon dioxide is being absorbed.

slide35

Burning of fossil fuels in industry & vehicles: Carbon is a by-product of combustion. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been rising. Some say it is contributing to global warming.

carbon cycle video
CARBON CYCLE VIDEO

http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/ecosystems/carbon-cycle.htm

nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen is an important element in organic compound such as proteins, DNA, amino acids & chlorophyll.
slide39

Nitrogen is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere. It cycles from the atmosphere to living things& back to atmosphere.

slide41

Plants cannot use simple nitrogen molecules (NH2).

2. Plants take it in as a nitrate (NO3-).

slide42

3. Nitrate is formed when nitrogen is combined with oxygen. This process is called nitrogen fixation.

slide43

4. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria live on root nodules of legumes & convert the gaseous nitrogento ammonia (NH4) then to nitrates(NO2 or NO3).

slide44

Examples of legumes: clover, peas, soybeans & alfalfa.

6. Plants use nitrates to make proteins. Animals only take in nitrogen by eating plants.

slide46

8. During decomposition, nitrogen compound are released. Denitrifying bacteria will break down ammonia to nitrogen & oxygen & release nitrogenback to soil and atmosphere.

nitrogen cycle video
Nitrogen Cycle Video

http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/ecosystems/nitrogen-cycle.htm

ways humans alter the nitrogen cycle
WAYS HUMANS ALTER THE NITROGEN CYCLE
  • The rate of nitrogen fixation has doubledsince the 1950s.
  • Fertilizers: contain nitrogen…place on lawn & farmlands
ways humans alter the nitrogen cycle1
WAYS HUMANS ALTER THE NITROGEN CYCLE
  • Burning of fossil fuels: releases nitrogen during combustion
  • Destruction of forests & wetlands: release nitrogen through decay
consequences
CONSEQUENCES
  • Ecosystems: Nitrogen additions to the soil can lead to changes that favor weeds over native plants, which in turn reduce species diversity and changes ecosystems.
slide53

Research shows that nitrogen levels are linked with changes in grassland species, from mosses and lichens to grasses and flowers.

slide54

Precipitation: Nitrogen oxides react with water to form nitric acid, which along with sulfur dioxide is a major component of acid rain.

slide55

Acid rain can damage and kill aquatic life and vegetation, as well as corrode buildings, bridges, and other structures.

slide56

Air quality: High concentrations of nitrogen oxides in the lower atmosphere are a precursor to tropospheric ozone, which is known to damage living tissues, including human lungs, and decrease plant production.

slide57

Water quality: Adding large amounts of nitrogen to rivers, lakes, and coastal systems results in eutrophication, a condition that occurs in aquatic ecosystems when excessive nutrient concentrations stimulate blooms of algaethat deplete oxygen, killing fish and other organisms and ruining water quality.

phosphorus cycle
PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
  • Phosphorus is not a gas and does not enter the atmosphere.
slide60

Water runs over rocks that contain phosphorus and places it in the water and soil. Plant roots absorb phosphorus.

slide61

Phosphate makes up DNA. Animals get phosphates through food. Phosphorus is release by decomposition.

slide63

When we use soapsand detergents with phosphorus it integrates into our groundwater.

  • Fertilizers
phosphorus video
Phosphorus video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iwL24oVpH4

oxygen cycle
Oxygen Cycle

This cycle only consists of photosynthesis & respiration. Photosynthesis & respiration are OPPOSITE reactions & they rely on each other.

oxygen cycle a cycle within the carbon cycle
Oxygen Cycle (a cycle within the carbon cycle)
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bJuMnpso2JY
slide68

Plants produce OXYGEN through the process of photosynthesis. Animals take in the oxygen from the air & change it into energy & release carbon dioxidethrough the process of respiration.

photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
  • 6CO2 + 6H20 +Sunlight -> C6H12O6 + 6O2

CHLOROPHYLL

respiration
Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2--> 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36 ATP