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Chapter 5. Data Resource Management. I. Why do organizations store data?. Data resources must be structured and organized in some logical manner so they can be accessed, processed, retrieved, and managed easily. Traditional File Processing Problems. 1. Data Redundancy

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chapter 5

Chapter 5

Data Resource Management

i why do organizations store data
I. Why do organizations store data?

Data resources must be structured and organized in some logical manner so they can be accessed, processed, retrieved, and managed easily

traditional file processing problems
Traditional File Processing Problems

1. Data Redundancy

2. Lack of data Integration

3. Data Dependence – data and programs “tightly coupled”

4. Lack of Data Integrity (Standardization)

ii fundamental data concepts
II. Fundamental Data Concepts

Character – the most basic logical data element that can be observed, a single alpha or numeric or other symbol, represented by one byte

Field – a grouping of related characters, as a last name or a salary, represents an attribute of some entity General Purpose Application Programs – perform common information processing jobs for end users

ii fundamental data concepts5
II. Fundamental Data Concepts

Record – a grouping of attributes that describe an entity

File – a group of related data records

Database – a collection of logically related data elements

iii database structures models
III. Database Structures (Models)

Hierarchical Structure – treelike structure of one-to-many parent-child relationships (each child can have only one parent)

Network Structure – similar to hierarchical but allows many-to-many relationships (a child record can have more than one parent)

Relational Structure – the most widely used database model today; data is represented as a series of two-dimensional tables called Relations; each column is a named attribute of the entity, each row is an unnamed instance of that entity

iv database development
IV. Database Development

Database Administrator (DBA) – controls development and administration of the database

Data Definition Language (DDL) – used to specify the contents, relationships, and structure of the database

Data Dictionary – directory containing the metadata

Metadata – data about the data

i data resource management
I. Data Resource Management

Types of Databases Used by Organizations and End-Users

ii types of databases
II. Types of Databases

Operational Databases – store detailed data to support business processes and operations

Distributed Databases – many organizations distribute their databases over multiple locations

Replication – complex process of updating distributed data

Duplication – simplified method of updating distributed data

ii types of databases11
II. Types of Databases

External Databases – outside the firm, free or fee-based

Hypermedia Databases – hyperlinked pages of multimedia

iii data warehouses and data mining
III. Data Warehouses and Data Mining

Data Warehouse – stores data extracted from other databases

Data Mart – subset of a data warehouse focusing on a single topic, customer, product, etc.

Data Mining – analyzing a data warehouse to reveal hidden patterns and trends

iii data warehouses and data mining14
III. Data Warehouses and Data Mining

Components of a Data Warehouse System

graphical query
Graphical Query

Source: Courtesy of Microsoft Corp.

iv database development17
IV. Database Development

Entity Relationship Diagram (without details)

erds to create in class
ERDs to create in class
  • Supplier (Manufacturer, Products)
  • Registration System (Student, Course, Registration)
  • Appointment (Doctor, Patient, Appointment)
  • Bank (Customer, Account, Transaction)
  • Library (Borrower, Checkout, Book)