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The Monocots: Part 2 Commelinoid Monocots. Spring 2010. Phylogeny of Monocot Groups. Acorales Alismatales Asparagales Liliales Dioscoreales Pandanales Arecales Poales Commelinales Zingiberales. Basal “ Petaloid ” Commelinoid. Commelinoid characters.

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phylogeny of monocot groups
Phylogeny of Monocot Groups

Acorales

Alismatales

Asparagales

Liliales

Dioscoreales

Pandanales

Arecales

Poales

Commelinales

Zingiberales

Basal

“Petaloid”

Commelinoid

commelinoid characters
Commelinoid characters
  • Special type of epicuticular wax
  • Starchy pollen
  • UV-fluorescent compounds in the cell walls
  • Starchy endosperm (except in the palms)
  • Lots of molecular support
commelinoid monocot groups
Commelinoid Monocot Groups

Order Arecales - Palms

Arecaceae (Palmae)

Order Poales - Grasses - Bromeliads Cat-tails Rushes, Sedges, and Grasses

Bromeliaceae

Typhaceae

Juncaceae

Cyperaceae

Poaceae (Gramineae)

Order Zingiberales – Ginger, banana, and allies (no required families)

commelinoid monocots arecales arecaeae palmae
Commelinoid Monocots:Arecales: Arecaeae (Palmae)
  • Widespread throughout tropical and warm temperate regions
  • “Trees” or “shrubs”, typically unbranched
  • Diversity: ca. 2,780 in 200 genera
  • Flowers: usually sessile, in compound-spicate inflorescences, these subtended by a bract (spathe); ovule 1 per locule
  • Significant features: Leaves alternate or spiral, blades plicate, splitting in a pinnate or palmate manner
  • Special uses: coconut (Cocos nucifera), date (Phoenix dactylifera), rattan (Calamus), oils and waxes, ornamentals
  • Required taxa: *family only

* Change from lab manual

arecaceae
Arecaceae
  • Numerous small flowers
  • Spathes + compound-spicate inflorescence
  • 3 sepals + 3 petals
  • Superior ovary (carpel fusion varies)
  • Drupe
  • Unbranchedtrunks
  • Big leaves on top!
arecaceae9
Arecaceae

Economic plants and products:

Phoenix dactylifera

Dates

characters of poales
Characters of Poales
  • Silica bodies (in silica cells) in the epidermis
  • Styles strongly branched
  • Loss of raphide (needle-like) crystals
  • Much molecular support for monophyly
  • Wind pollination has evolved several times independently within the order
  • Ecologically very important
commelinoid monocots poales bromeliaceae the pineapple bromeliad family
Commelinoid Monocots—Poales:Bromeliaceae(The Pineapple/Bromeliad Family)
  • Tropical to temperate regions of the Americas
  • Predominantly epiphytic herbs (“tank” plants)
  • Diversity: ca. 1,520 species in 51 genera
  • Flowers: radial, perianth differentiated into calyx and corolla, borne in axils of often brightly colored bracts; inflorescences spicate or paniculate; stigmas 3, usually twisted; seeds often winged or with tufts of hair
  • Significant features: leaves with water absorbing peltate (or stellate) scales
  • Special uses: pineapple (Ananas)
  • Required taxa: *Tillandsia (Spanish moss)

*change from lab manual

commelinoid monocots poales typhaceae the cattail family
Commelinoid Monocots—Poales:Typhaceae(The Cattail Family)
  • Widely distributed, especially in Northern Hemisphere
  • Aquatic & wetland rhizomatous herbs
  • Diversity: 28 species in 2 genera
  • Flowers: small, unisexual; separated spatially on dense, compact spicate or globose-clustered inflorescences; placentation apical
  • Significant features: rhizomatous; long slender leaves; characteristic inflorescence
  • Special uses: ornamental aquatics
  • Required taxa: Typha
commelinoid monocots poales juncaceae the rush family
Commelinoid Monocots—Poales:Juncaceae(The Rush Family)
  • Worldwide, mostly temperate regions; wet or damp habitats
  • Rhizomatous herbs, stems round and solid
  • Diversity: 400 species in 6 genera
  • Flowers: tepals 6, distinct; carpels 3 in superior ovary; stamens 6; fruit a loculicidal capsule
  • Significant features: leaves 3-ranked, sheaths usually open
  • Special uses: leaves used to weave rush baskets; some ornamentals
  • Required taxa: Juncus
juncaceae juncus
Juncaceae: Juncus

-cymose inflorescences

-leaf sheaths open

-leaf blades flat, grooved,

or cylindrical

commelinoid monocots poales cyperaceae the sedge family
Commelinoid Monocots—Poales:Cyperaceae(The Sedge Family)
  • Worldwide, usually in damp or semi-aquatic sites
  • Rhizomatous herbs, stems usually triangular in cross section
  • Diversity: 4,500 species in 104 genera
  • Flowers: with subtending bract; tepals absent or reduced to 3-6 scales or hairs; stamens 1-3; carpels 2-3 in superior ovary; fruit an achene (nutlet)
  • Significant features: Inflorescence a complex group of spikelets; leaf sheaths closed, ligule lacking; silica bodies conical
  • Special uses: Papyrus used originally for paper; “water chestnuts”and a few other rhizomes edible, leaves used for weaving; some ornamentals.
  • Required taxa: Carex, Cyperus
cyperaceae versus juncaceae field character
Cyperaceae versus Juncaceae:Field Character

“Sedges have edges… …and rushes roll.”

cyperaceae23

Flowers:

    • Arranged in spikelets
    • Reduced
    • Wind-pollinated flowers
    • Subtended by bract
    • Reduced/absent perianth
Cyperaceae

flower + subtending bract = floret

flower

spikelet

cyperaceae24
Cyperaceae

Fruit type is the achene: very important in

the taxonomy of the family.

Eleocharis Rhynchospora

(note bristle perianth)

Cyperus

cyperaceae carex
Cyperaceae: Carex

-presence of the perigynium (a sac-like

bract surrounding the female flower) in

addition to the subtending bract

-leaves usually with a ligule

commelinoid monocots poales poaceae gramineae the grass family
Commelinoid Monocots—Poales:Poaceae (Gramineae)(The Grass Family)
  • Cosmopolitan
  • Primarily herbs, often rhizomatous; “trees” in most bamboos; stems are called culms
  • Diversity: 10,000 species in ca. 650 genera
  • Flowers: small, perianth parts reduced to lodicules; each flower enclosed by two bracts (lemma and palea) = floret; stamens typically 3; carpels 3, but appearing as 2; fruit a caryopsis
  • Significant features: 1-many florets aggregated into spikelets, each with usually 2 empty bracts (glumes) at the base; leaf with a ligule
  • Special uses: many – grains, turf, fodder/forage, structural uses (e.g., bamboo).
  • Required taxa: *Poa, *Andropogon

*change from lab manual

slide28

bamboo

Economic

importance

sugar cane

Zea mays

weeds

Oryza sativa

Triticum aestivum

slide29

Ecological

importance

slide32

Anatomy of the

Caryopsis (Grain)

  • The fruit wall (pericarp) is completely fused to the seed coat.
  • Endosperm (3N; triploid) contains the bulk of starch storage in the seed.
  • The embryo is a pre-formed grass plant, with apical meristems (for both shoot and root) and protective organs (coleoptile and coleorhiza) which emerge first during germination.
slide33

early grasses

Origin of

grasses

ca. 70-80 mya

in southern-

hemisphere

forests

slide34

Anomochlooideae

Pharoideae

Puelioideae

Bamboos

(Bambusoideae)

Origin of

grasses

ca. 70-80 mya

in forests

Bluegrasses

(Pooideae)

Rices

(Ehrhartoideae)

Panicgrasses

(Panicoideae)

Major radiation

in Oligocene-

Miocene epochs

into open habitats

Needlegrasses

(Aristidoideae)

Lovegrasses

(Chloridoideae)

+

Micrairoideae

Stamens

reduced to 3

Reeds

(Arundinoideae)

Oatgrasses

(Danthonioideae)

slide35

C4 photosynthetic pathway

(in warm season grasses)

is advantageous under

higher temperatures, higher

light, and less water

poaceae poa
Poaceae: Poa

-cool season

-leaf tip boat-shaped

-inflorescence branched from

a main axis

-spikelets solitary

-glumes papery

-florets 3-several, often with

a cottony web at the base

poaceae andropogon
Poaceae: Andropogon

-warm season

-leaf midrib whitish, prominent

-2-many branches per

inflorescence, often digitate

-spikelets paired

-glumes tough, leathery

for more information and images http www eeob iastate edu research iowagrasses the grasses of iowa
For more informationand images:http://www.eeob.iastate.edu/research/iowagrasses/The Grasses of Iowa
grasses sedge rushes
Grasses, Sedge, Rushes!
  • Terete, solid,
  • not jointed
  • 3
  • Open
  • Cymose
  • 6 chaffy tepals
  • Capsule
  • Triangular, solid, not jointed
  • 3
  • Closed
  • Spikelets
  • None or bristles/scales
  • Achene
  • Stem terete, hollow,
  • or solid, jointed
  • Leaf ranks 2
  • Leaf sheath Open,
  • ligule
  • Inflor: Spikelets
  • Perianth: Lodicules
  • Fruit: Caryopsis
commelinales
Commelinales

5 families, 780 species, widespread in various habitats

commelinoid monocots zingiberales
Commelinoid Monocots: Zingiberales
  • Large herbs with vessels more or less limited to the roots
  • Silica cells present in the bundle sheaths
  • Leaves clearly differentiated into a petiole and blade
  • Leaf blade with pinnate venation, often tearing between the second-order veins
  • Leaf blade rolled into a tube in bud
  • Petiole with enlarged air canals
  • Flowers bilateral (or irregular)
  • Pollen lacking an exine
  • Ovary inferior
  • Seeds arillate and with perisperm
  • 8 families and nearly 2000 species

Must be able

to recognize

the order!