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TEXT TYPES P-12 Loddon Mallee Region. 1. Literacy Elements Gradual Release of Responsibility Breakthrough Framework Text Categories Text Types Deconstruction and Reconstruction of Texts Writing in a Multimodal World. Session Outline. LITERACY ELEMENTS. SPEAKING & LISTENING OBSERVATION

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Literacy Elements

Gradual Release of Responsibility

Breakthrough Framework

Text Categories

Text Types

Deconstruction and Reconstruction of Texts

Writing in a Multimodal World

Session Outline







  • Write Aloud
  • Shared Writing
  • Guided Writing
  • Independent Writing
  • Read Aloud
  • Shared Reading
  • Guided Reading
  • Independent Reading


Role of the teacher


The teacher demonstrates and explains the literacy focus being taught. This is achieved by thinking aloud the mental processes and modelling the reading, writing, speaking and listening


The teacher continues to demonstrate the literacy focus, encouraging students to contribute ideas and information


The teacher provides scaffolds for students to use the literacy focus. Teacher provides feedback


The teacher offers support and encouragement when necessary

The student works independently to apply the use of literacy focus


Students work with help from the teacher and peers to practise the use of the literacy focus

Students contribute ideas and begin to practise the use of the literacy focus in whole class situations


The student participates by actively attending to the demonstrations

Pearson & Gallagher

Role of the student

text categories
Text Categories

Texts are grouped and defined in particularcategories. It is important to note that any such classifications are arbitrary and that there is always likely to be overlapbetween ways of grouping texts and definingtext types.


The categories of texts indicated above can be further subdivided into different Text Types.

text type quiz
Text Type Quiz


In your envelope are the 9 key Text Types, their Purposes, their Structures and their Language Features.

You Will Need:

Text Type template (insert colour you have used)

TEXT TYPE quiz envelope contents

In pairs put the grid together.

Check against the completed grid (Hand Out) – Text Type Grid

the 9 key text types
The 9 Key Text Types

Description (factual or literary)*This text type is often embedded within other texts

Report (factual)

Recount (factual or literary)

Narrative (literary)

Procedure (factual)

Explanation (factual or literary)

Exposition (factual)

Discussion (factual)

Response (factualor literary)

Page number8

text types described
Text Types - Described

These are the texts that need to be explicitly taught and are crucial to students learning.

They provide the basic entry point for student learning and access to effective participation in the community.

text types description continued
Text Types - Description Continued

They are idealised for teaching purposes.

In real life we find ‘mixed texts’. Examples of ‘mixed texts’ (hybrids) are:

An ‘Information Report’ may contain an ‘Explanation’

A ‘Narrative’ may contain ‘Descriptions’ of people places and events.

A scientific ‘Procedure’ may conclude with an ‘Explanation’ of a scientific principle.


Hybrid Text - Example

Information Report



Science World 7 Macmillan 3rd Edition.

text types as starting points
Text Types as Starting Points

When students understand that:

Different types of texts exist

Texts have different purposes

Texts have particular structures

Texts have characteristic language featuresincluding particular grammatical patternsand

Texts have particular language conventions (spelling, punctuation, font variations and page layout), they are in a better position to manipulate and combine different TextTypes in purposeful ways for a particular audience. We see this daily in different text formats.

text formats or forms for real purposes
Text Formats or Forms for Real Purposes

There are 8 key ‘Purposes for Writing’









Instruct Reference: Annandale K

(Hand Out) - ‘Text Forms’ table - based on Purposes

teaching text types
Teaching Text Types

What do they provide?

Text Types provide links to literacy development as a social practice.

Text Types provide for the literacy development across and within:

Domains and Dimensions,

VCE, VCAL and VET subjects

Text Types provide students with shared understandings about how to effectively communicate in each area of study.

what should our focus be
What should our focus be?

We need to focus on those that are most relevant to the content of the program.

We need to focus on those suggested in the Focus Statements in VELS and VCE subjects.

We need to explicitly teach and reteach particular text types and adapt formats to match the nature and level of content deemed as essential learning.

what should our focus be continued
What should our focus be? Continued

Data driven teaching using classroom sources of information. Responding to assessment through observations, conversations and previous products created. Data gathered from teachers moderatingtogether.

Data driven using external sources of information e.g. English Online (Prep to Year 2) On Demand Testing (Linear and Adaptive) and NAPLAN (Years 3,5,7 & 9).

text types
Text Types

To learn about texts we need to have a working knowledge of each under the following headings.

predicting from text beginnings
Predicting From Text Beginnings

The heart is the most important organ of the circulatory system. It allows oxygenated blood to be pumped around the body. The heart has parts.


Last week Dad took me to the football to watch my favourite team.

Factual Recount

The wolf crept out from behind the tree, crouched low and was ready to pounce. The children would fall into the trap just like the others had.


predicting from text beginnings continued
Predicting From Text Beginnings - continued

The following is the instructions of how to set up your mobile phone.


The ear provides audio information to the brain. It works by collecting the sounds in the outer ear. The sound vibration causes movement of the ear drum and the tiny bones connected to it.


There are many ways to overcome poor eyesight now and one way is to have eye surgery. Before a decision is made however patients need to consider many factors such as their state of health, cost and risks associated.


predicting from text beginnings continued20
Predicting From Text Beginnings - continued
  • Mobile phones should not be used while being served in a retail outlet.
  • Exposition
  • Billy is a teenage boy. He is of medium height with golden brown hair.
  • Description
  • The movie ‘Twilight’ a most compelling film and is set in deepest, darkest heart of America. It has romance, action and plot twists woven around the two central characters.
  • Response
modelling text types
Modelling Text Types

In order for students to be able to create and manipulate various texts types effectively, they must be able to deconstructidealised and hybrid examples .

Deconstruction allows the students to familiarise themselves with the text before them and analyse its:


Structural / Organisational features ,

Language features and


deconstructing a narrative
Deconstructing a Narrative

Read the Narrative

Hand Out ‘The Invasion’.

1 per person

Source –

deconstructing a narrative23
Deconstructing a NARRATIVE


The Invasion



the invaders – the mosquitoes, cockroaches and beetles


they moved through the city into gardens, on pavements, walls

and they sucked the blood of people


on a hot steamy summer night


in a city somewhere

organisation structure


1st paragraph

sets time and setting

COMPLICATION followed by a series of events

2nd paragraph

The many legged invasion begins

3rd paragraph

Describing the what the invaders did

4th paragraph

Further description of what the invaders did e.g. suck human blood

5th paragraph

Humans sleeping on unaware of the invasion


6th paragraph

Just another night of fun for the invaders

language features


Noun groups e.g. streets, houses, ceilings, walls, people, invaders

Verbs e.g. quivered, entered, walked, asleep

Adjectives e.g. many-legged

Topic specific terminology e.g. cockroaches, beetles


Descriptive e.g. ‘climbed silently over carpets’

Entertaining e.g. ‘need to feed on blood’

language features continued


Figurative language (images created with clever use of language) e.g. ‘antennae quivered’, ‘feed on human blood’

Adjectival modifiers e.g. ‘totally’ unaware

Prepositions e.g. ‘over’, ‘under’, ‘on’, ‘in’ and ‘into’

Past tense e.g. ‘It was’, ‘they took’, ‘were sound asleep’.

conventions or mechanics

Spelling– Topic words e.g. cockroaches, beetles, mosquitoes, antennae.

Punctuation– Exclamation marks (double !!), commas, capitals, full stops, hyphenated word.

Grammar– Past tense, adjectival modifiers, figurative language.

Page layout– Heading, paragraph spacing, pictures

Font variations– Larger text heading and BOLD

deconstruction task
Deconstruction Task


Form a group of 8.


Using the Text Type Pack (Hand Out) each person is to choose a sample Text Type other than the Narrative and using the Text Type template deconstruct the text. Complete as per the Narrative previously demonstrated.

20 min.

Each person display your stimulus text, and deconstruction details. Sharing with your table.

Discuss each in detail

20 min.

scaffolding text construction
Scaffolding Text Construction


Form into groups of 3

Read the ‘Plasma Television’ article.

Using the A3 Exposition Planning sheet and the

Text Type Grid to guide your group, plan an

argument foror againstthe issue.

Compare arguments constructed that support or refute the thesis with the group.

writing in the multimodal world
Writing in the Multimodal World

How will you assist students writing in the ‘multimodal’ and ‘digital world’?

What ‘modes’ of meaning comprise multimodal texts?

Do we have the ‘metalanguage’ to talk competently about multimodal texts?

Do we have the teaching and learning expertise to be able to assist students to write quality multimodal texts?

scaffolding writing through the gradual release of responsibility model
Scaffolding Writing through the ‘Gradual Release of Responsibility’ Model

Discussion: Using what you have learnt today how will you implement or strengthen the teaching and learning around ‘Text Types’ using the ‘Gradual Release of Responsibility’ model?

Familiarising students with the text – How?

Modelling – How?

Sharing – How?

Guiding – How?

Independent – How?

writing as a learned skill
Writing as a learned Skill

Something to ponder -

Writing is a ‘learned’ skill and if anything goes in writing everything goes!



Anstey M and Bull G (2009) Using Multimodal Texts and Digital Resources in a multiliterate classroom, e.lit, Marrickville, Sydney (2010)

Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD), (2009) Key Characteristics of Effective Literacy. Pub. Student Learning Division, Melbourne

Standard P and Williamson K (2006), Science World 3rd Edition – Student CD Macmillan, Melbourne.

Annandale .et al (2004) First Steps Writing 2nd Edition, WA Department of Education and training.