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Sectional Conflict & Politics 1846 - 1857. Wedges of Separation. North vs. South suspicious gov’t to advance their interests South -Thomas Kettell’s – “Southern Wealth & Northern Profits” South producing wealth – North is a leech (dependent)

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wedges of separation
Wedges of Separation
  • North vs. South suspicious gov’t to advance their interests
    • South -Thomas Kettell’s – “Southern Wealth & Northern Profits”
      • South producing wealth – North is a leech (dependent)
      • Northern charges large sums of money for shipment of goods
      • North needed the South for raw materials to trade for other goods
    • North
      • South caused economic stagnation
        • South utilized systems that impeded northern economic superiority
        • Southerners help destroy the national banking system – deprived U.S. of economic focus
    • North Blamed South for economic issues
      • Southern Congressmen defeat legislation for internal improvements
        • Transcontinental Railroad: Homestead Act
    • Each failed to see how they depended on one another economically & politically Economic differences enhanced the idea of Favoritism.
      • South refused to believe North helped Southern economy
      • North failed to see how much their profit depended on Southern materials
wedges of separation1
Wedges of Separation
  • Divergent difference in Slavery Policy:
      • Should slavery exist on American Soil?
      • Should the U.S. continue to assume the position of a proslavery power?
      • How did slavery provide unfair competition.
      • Would slavery expand into the west?
  • Western migration Spells growing pains
      • Gold Rush, Mexican – American War, Texas coming into the Union,
        • Increased tension surrounding slave issue
        • Many Northerners saw these conflicts as missions of southern conquest
        • Southerners accused the North of taking away their rights as citizens
        • Fueled Sectional Conflict
wedges of sectionalism
Wedges of Sectionalism
  • Missouri Compromise 1820
    • Missouri Compromise - 1820
      • Equal number of slave & free states (11 each)
        • 1819 Missouri wants to be admitted into the union – slave state
        • Northerners opposed the admittance of another slave state – lose power in Congress
          • Northerners argued that slaves could not be carried past boundary 36 – 30
          • Southerners argued that laws could not prevent chattel (property into new territory.)
        • Heated debates took place on Congressional floors
          • Slavery (as a moral question) is not the issue - law
        • Maine’s admittance into the union the union saved the issue – thus allowing one free & slave state into union Nine free states – nine slave
        • Balance in the union, in congress, in law making, and representation
  • 1840s California’s proposed admission disrupted the balance
    • David Wilmot
      • Wilmot’s Proviso – (1846) House of Rep. resolution to prohibit slavery in Mexican territories – California included
      • Polarized the nation – Congressional prohibition of slavery – Violated & threatened Southern rights
      • Southern democrats (in Senate) refused to act on the bill (killed the bill)
      • 1848-1849 House of Rep. voted to pass Wilmot Proviso – blocked by Senate
wedges of sectionalism1
Wedges of Sectionalism
  • South outraged – exclusion of slavery in territories
      • Southerners Questioned Manifest Destiny
      • Southerners held Nashville Convention 1850
        • Purpose to discuss what South should do if anti-southern measures were passed (e.g. Wilmot Proviso)
          • Southern extremists called for immediate secession
          • Southern Cooperationists favored future secession if north continued in usurpation of rights
          • Conservative group called for no action
        • This convention increased antagonism of Southerners towards the North
          • Secession from union becomes the option of the South thru this convention
          • Vital question at this meeting – not Shall we secede? But Shall we secede together?
      • Southerners insisted – all territories belong equally to North & South –
        • Our right to take slave into federal territories
        • Southern language became attuned to the language of disunion
      • Wilmot Proviso for Southerners = Death
        • no hope future slave states
        • Southern rights not maintained – created a disadvantaged for South
      • The admittance of California into the Union meant North would have advantage – free states have a majority
wedges of sectionalism2
Wedges of Sectionalism
  • Thirty-Six Congress 1849
      • North & South on congressional floor
        • 17 days to vote on a house speaker
        • Foul language, verbal attacks, fistfights, and duels
      • 1850 – President Taylor called to admit California as a State immediately (no territorial phase)
        • Wilmot Proviso - Georgia’s Rep. Robert Toombs “If it should pass, I am for disunion”
        • William Colcock (South Carolina) “If slavery should be excluded from the territories, that he would offer a resolution for declaring the Union to be dissolved”
      • Thirty – Six Congress tense, volatile, emotional and about to break
      • Henry Clay’s – 1850 Compromise - Southern Senator
clay s compromise of 1850
Clay’s Compromise of 1850
  • Several Parts:
      • Let California be a free state
      • Pass a strict fugitive slave law to please South
      • Organize new territories in Southwest without Wilmot-Proviso
      • Abolish Slave Auctions in D.C.
      • Compensate Texas for lost territory
        • Clay’s Compromise debated for 6 months
          • Debates over: sectional crisis, slavery, recognizing each others interests, there had to be concessions, etc..
      • Four major position emerge due to Clay’s compromise
      • The bill that clay provides: all must pass in the bill
        • One – No slaves in any territories
        • Two – There should be no restrictions on slavery
        • Three – Let popular sovereignty of territorial peoples decide
        • Four – Missouri Compromise of 1820 should extend 36*-30* degree parallel
      • Both sides argued that slavery would die out in the territories
        • Slave problem is both the north & south’s issue
        • Churches were to blame for growth in section conflict,
        • After 6 months Clay’s compromise was defeated
douglas compromise of 1850
Douglas Compromise of 1850
  • Henry Clay retires – Stephen Douglas becomes advocate
      • Douglas separated the bill;
        • Five different parts
        • Calif. Admitted to union as free state
        • Utah – New Mexico organized as states (free)
          • Ability to choose free or slave state
      • Severe & strict fugitive slave law
        • Represents sectionalism –
          • Irritant to the North; and
          • Reminded the apathetic Americans about the issue
  • Fugitive Slave Law
      • Owner pursue, seize, and arrest slaves without due process
      • Those claiming could provide proof: verbally, written, directly or indirectly to courts.
      • Authorities received payment for safe return of slaves.
      • All good citizens command to participate – North or South
        • Celebration In the streets – dodged another bullet
  • Douglas compromise: reactions
      • North & South thought the compromise solved slave issue
kansas nebraska act 1854
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
  • Territories (Platte County) awaiting admittance 1854 - Iowa
      • According to 1820 compromise – territory must be free (no slaves)
      • Douglas Kansas-Nebraska act initiated
        • “In-tune” with Great 1850 compromise
        • Popular sovereignty – residents of territories decide (Free or Slave)
      • North & South Discontent:
        • North Argued:
          • Missouri Compromise must be followed – no slavery above 36*30*
        • South Argued:
          • Insisted that slavery must be permitted during territorial phase
      • May 1854 Douglas proposed that the 1820 Compromise be “inoperative & void” –
        • Slavery decided by the popular sovereignty of the people
      • Reactions: Northerners – “infuriated”
        • Congress has on right to legislate slavery anywhere
        • Northerners argued “Freedom is national; slavery only local”
      • Southerners “indifferent”
        • Did not care for the bill at first – not enough protection of rights
        • Later they began to accept and support the measure
theory vs practice
Theory vs. Practice
  • Reintroduced Sectional debate
  • Kansas-Nebraska - contest between pro and anti-slavery forces
      • North – creation of free state – stop Southern slave power (Mission)
      • South – Save Missouri from abolitionist (Mission)
      • Competition for offices, land, & authority
        • Congress failed to survey land – provide titles – or eliminate Indian land titles
  • Feeding Instability in Kansas
      • Emigrant Aid Company promoted immigration assisted settlers (Northern Abolitionists)
        • Provoked the south – creation of border ruffians
      • South sent men from Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina (pro-slavery influence)
      • Each side reacted to “perceived actions”
fight for kansas
Fight for Kansas
  • Kansas Woe
      • Open territorial elections – ballot boxes stuffed with fake votes
      • Limited offices to pro-slavery men
      • Imprisonment to anyone who didn’t support slavery
  • Power struggle – North vs. South
    • Wakarusa War 1855 (Dec) – Lawrence
      • Free-state settler killed by a pro-slavery rival (Private Feud)
        • Pro-slavery sheriff collected posse and arrested friend, for threatening revenge.
        • Governor (pro-slave) declared Lawrence in rebellion
        • Sent in state militia – many from Missouri to seize control of Lawrence
          • Anti – slave & pro-slave persons were on the brink of war
    • Topeka – (Northerners) banned slavery, ratified a constitution, launched a state gov (1856)
        • Pro-slavery settlers took no part
    • Lecompton – (South) adopted slavery, “right of property…”, created a constitution, and a gov. (1856)
      • Both North and south made plans to push Kansas and Nebraska into statehood…free and slave
        • Each elected their territorial legislatures (Congress)
        • Each had their own constitution
          • Push tensions in Kansas & Nebraska
        • They excluded each other in voting on constitution
          • Only presenting plans to counties supportive of constitutions
1856 bloody kansas
1856 & Bloody Kansas
  • 1856 Sacking of Lawrence Kansas (Free Town)
      • 800 Missourian men (lead by local sheriff) to arrest treasonous free state supporters
        • Erupted into blood shed and the burning of several buildings in Lawrence
      • Blood loss relatively low
    • Expressions of Sectionalism
      • South
        • J.D.B. De Bow – “Build her own ships and conduct her trade with foreign power; manufacture at home every bale of cotton; cease the annual migrations north”
        • “Northerners slaves to capital” – “not giving enough property for people to live on”
        • Filibustering – expeditions into Cuba & Central America – create new nations/ states (pro-slave)
      • North
        • South is a “slave-ocrcay” bent on taking over and corrupting the nation
      • Intensification of sectionalism – a desire to part from one another
    • Intensified Sectionalism gave rise to increased tensions
      • Churches increased involvement in the growing sectionalism
        • A place to express moral outrage and moral justification
      • South
        • Albert G. Brown - “That slaver is a blessing to the masters”
        • Southern men are “courageous high-bred, and manly. The other is cowardly, low-flung, and sneaking”
      • North
        • Joshua Giddings ““when human government overstep the bounds of their constitutional powers to rob men of life or liberty, their actions are void”
john brown
John Brown
  • John Brown – “Grim Revolutionary”
    • Life of Brown:
      • Tanner, Land Speculator, Sheep herder: failure at everything
      • Son of Strict Calvinist; marries young,
      • 1850sRecruited by Emergency Aid to defend Kansas
      • 1837 Neighbor is killed (Elijah Lovejoy) vows to fight slavery
      • Violence – only way to stop slavery (Action)
    • May 24-25 1856 (Brown & Sons attack pro-slavery family in Pottawatomie Creek)
      • Murder 5 men – mutilate their bodies
      • Left as an example for all pro-slavery supporters
  • Why John Brown?
    • Men murdered connected with pro-slavery gov.
      • Retaliation for the recent murder of 6 anti-slavery families
      • Feared being convicted of treason for voting for Topeka constitution
  • John Brown persecuted
      • Due to his attacks – brown and partisans attacked by 100’s of pro-slavery men
      • Battle of Osawatomie – son is killed & home his settlement burned to ground
  • Brown’s Crazy thinking
      • He is convinced – Violence is the only way to end slavery – leaves Kansas
caning of charles sumner
Caning of Charles Sumner
  • Charles Sumner (Massachusetts Senator) 1856
      • Publicly denounces the violence in Kansas “Crime against Kansas”
        • Kansas is in “law-lessness”
        • Communities are being violated by the South
      • Attacks the slave holders – using sexual references – “the rape of Kansas”
      • Attacks South Carolina and Senator Andrew Butler
  • Preston Brook (Cousin of Butler)
    • Code of personal honor – slander of relative must not go unpunished
      • May 22, 1856 walked up to Sumner and beat him with a cane
        • Took three years for Sumner to recover
    • South applauded the caning – Sent Brooks canes
      • Enlivened by the spiritual action
    • North – angered and attributed it to Southern barbarism
      • Bleeding of Kansas synonymous with Bleeding Sumner
      • Northern symbols of anti-southernism
    • What did it mean? Increased antagonism of part of North and South.
1856 elections
1856 Elections
  • Three choices:
      • Party Platform:
        • Know-nothing Party - avoid slavery Union in Peril
      • Milliard Fillmore & Andrew Jackson Donelson
    • Democratic Party - Divided (North/South)
      • Party Platform:
        • Non-interference by congress on slavery
        • “Republicanism is sweeping over the North like a tornado [and} Union is tottering”
      • James Buchanan & John Breckinridge
    • Republican Party - John Fremont & William L. Dayton (2 yrs old)
      • Party Platform:
        • Repeal of Missouri Compromise unjust
        • Opposed slavery, ridiculed Kansas, denounced the Southern expansionism
        • Stomp out twin barbarism “Slavery & Mormon polygamy”
    • Buchanan won – revealing sectionalism
      • Buchanan was victorious cause he gained the southern vote
        • All of the south (14) plus California, New Jersey, Illinois, Indiana, & Pennsylvania
      • Republican’s & Know-nothing split vote in the north
        • Connecticut, Maine, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, Ohio, New York, R.I., Vermont, Wisconsin
lincoln douglas debates
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • Aug. 21–Oct. 15 1858 Debates for Senate seat
    • Lincoln – former political exp.
      • Whig, lawyer, wealthy, politician, rail-splitter, captain, & V.P. elect (1856)
  • Lincoln
    • “House Divided” – “gov cannot endure half slave/free”
    • “injustice in extending slavery into territories”
      • Denounced Popular sovereignty, Dred Scott decision (doctrine), social equality, “negro” citizenship, & did not address Fugitive slave law
      • Self-gov did not = enslavement of others
        • “No man is good enough to govern another without that other’s consent”
    • Political Position & Argument
      • Exclusion of slavery in the territories – Demos conspired to spread it’s necessity
douglas lincoln debates
Douglas-Lincoln Debates
  • Douglas
    • Denounced Republicans
      • “Black Republicans”, racial equality, radical republicans “defiers of the law”
        • Pres. Buchannan and Republicans – were out to get him
          • “what do you think Republicans of a political organization that will try to make an unholy…combination with its professed foes to beat a man merely because he has does right?”
        • Staunch defender of Popular Sovereignty
    • Lincoln’s Torrent
      • “Can the people of a U.S. territory, in any lawful way exclude slavery from their limits?”
    • Catch 22 – Douglas is caught –
      • Follow Supreme Court Decision – “No” alienate constituents
      • If “Yes” alienation of pro-southern supporters & South
    • Douglas’s response – “people of a territory can by lawful mean exclude slavery…for the reason that slavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere unless supported by local police regulations.”
reactions to lincoln douglas debates
Reactions to Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • South
    • If the people can decide slave or free; who’s going to protect our rights?
      • Practice – don’t accept slave codes
    • Obligation of Federal Government to protect the slave property of Southerners
harper s ferry reactions
Harper’s Ferry & Reactions
  • John Brown
      • 1859 is an outcast in Canada
        • Obtained money and arms
        • Created a “constitution and ordinance for the people of the United States”
        • Created a plan of emancipation
      • Capture the Federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry Virginia
        • Arm slaves and lead a slave revolt
        • Establish a guerilla band in mountains
        • Take slave holders as hostage – force south to adopt emancipation
  • Oct. 16, 1859 - attacked Federal Arsenal
      • Incite a slave rebellion – slaves would rally to his call
        • Brown captured a few citizens of the town
        • Slaves had no clue to the rebellion
        • Designated no escape route
      • Town folk ran to defend themselves until Federal forces under Robert E. Lee arrived to negotiate surrender
  • Reactions
      • North - Brown is the Christ or a fanatic
        • Songs and folk tales written about John Brown
      • South considered him a traitor - hanged
        • Heightened sectional conflict
        • Reinforced Southern fear of North’s intentions
          • North intends to free slavery by force
        • Direct result – South begin to arm state militias – mobilizing for war
harper s ferry reactions1
Harper’s Ferry & Reactions
  • John Brown - 1861
      • He captured Harpers Ferry with his nineteen men so few, And he frightened Old Virginny till she trembled through and through, They hung him for a traitor, themselves a traitor crew, But his truth is marching on. The conflict that he heralded, he looks from heaven to view, On the army of the Union with its flag, red, white, and blue, And heaven shall ring with anthems oer the deeds they mean to do, For his truth is marching on.
      • Oct. 31, 1859 Brown on Trial
        • Found guilty of treason, inciting rebellion, & murder
          • Dec. 1859 hung – as were his conspirators
        • “if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I say let it be done”
1860 election
1860 Election
  • Turmoil abounds
      • Know-nothing party is gone and absorbed in republican party
      • Democrats are divided between Northern & Southern democrats
        • Democratic convention held in South Carolina
        • Two party platforms presented– William Yancey (Southerner) & Stephen Douglas (Northerner)
          • Douglas proposed the supreme courts recent decision on slavery
          • Yancey supported the protection of slavery
      • Southern democrats called for the protection of slavery “or the democrats would withdraw”
        • Northern Democrats opposed any platform geared towards slavery
        • Democratic party split
      • Northern democrats elected Stephen Douglas as Candidate –Southern democrats elected John Breckinridge
1860 election1
1860 Election
  • Republicans - major political force
      • “Free Labor, Free Soil, Free Men”
        • Platform: rejected threats of disunion; recognized the power of states to control their own agendas, denounced Lecompton constitution; re-affirmed congressional right to make laws (Wilmot-Proviso)
        • Lincoln avoided comment on slavery – thus neither confirming or alleviating Southern fears of anti-slavery sentiments
      • Democrats feared their potential – called party “black republicans”
  • Lincoln takes office March 1861
      • In south Lincoln was not even on the ballots
      • Gov will not allow south to succeed
        • South figured Lincoln election = attack on south
      • Division among the Democrats allowed republicans to capture the presidency
1860 elections
1860 Elections
  • Reactions
      • Southern Mobilization
        • Southerners' increased patrols around the south
        • Reorganization of military to be more efficient
        • Conventions were called to discuss the action of the south in reaction to Lincolns winning
      • 1860-1861 S. Carolina called a convention
        • Cooperation for secession
        • Many states gave early approval for secession – others chose not to secede
        • With-in weeks of Lincoln's inauguration – S. Carolina drew up “declaration of the immediate causes which induce and justify the secession of S. C.”
          • Unanimously passed ordinances declaring secession from union
          • Believed they were the vanguards of the new revolution
          • Constitution was a compact between states…charged federal gov. of corruption
          • “we must start our Government free from the vulgar influences that have debauched and demoralized the Government of Washington”
        • Other states followed same process
          • Calling special conventions; declaring secession from union
union in crisis
Union in Crisis
  • President Buchanan
      • Chose to do nothing – feared reprisal – action = further tensions
        • Wanted the issue to go away
      • Cabinet became corrupt –
        • Secretary of interior – gave land, fort, guns to southerners
        • Money was transferred from union to Confederacy
        • Federal forts issue not solved
  • Washington Peace Conference - 1860
      • Attempt to stop secession & compromise
        • Conference came to late – once secession started it continued to attract new states
      • Crittenden Compromise – 7 amendments
        • Missouri line extended, Slavery protected in territories, Congress not to have control over slavery, Slave owners compensated for loss of property (slaves).
      • Outcome of Conference
        • Kept border states from secession until Lincoln’ inauguration
      • Both sides happy the convention failed
        • North – “With-out blood-letting this Union will not…be worth a rush”
        • South – “[we} would prefer to see the whole South [be] on one charnel house of destruction [than submit one single day to Lincoln’s administration”
c s a
C.S.A.
  • Montgomery Convention 1860-1861
      • Organize a government
        • Had limited representation through out south
        • A time of excitement
          • Drew up a constitution
          • It was their right to protect themselves and states rights
        • Justify secession – power derives from people – not gov
          • People took back power – reorganized
          • Constitution was a compact between people – could be broken
        • Two other objectives
          • Choose Pres & V.P.
          • Create legislature – organize & run the new confederation
  • Big problems for Confederacy
      • Structure – none existent
        • Create post office; courts; laws; policies; etc..
        • Mobilization of forces – just in case - defense
federal
Federal
  • Lincoln’s Inauguration 1861
      • Masterful speech of logic & reason
        • “The power confided to me, will be used to hold, occupy, and posses the property and places belonging to the government.”
        • “No purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists”
        • Radical tendencies – Lincoln would fall to these – was the fear of the south