corrosion under fire protection ian bradley international paint saudi arabia limited ipsal l.
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Corrosion Under Fire Protection - Ian Bradley, International Paint Saudi Arabia Limited (IPSAL). Presentation to NACE Middle East & African Branch. Contents. Types of passive fireproofing (PFP) Commonly found corrosion problems Corrosion testing for PFP systems UL exterior listing Norsok

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corrosion under fire protection ian bradley international paint saudi arabia limited ipsal
Corrosion Under Fire Protection

- Ian Bradley, International Paint Saudi Arabia Limited (IPSAL)

Presentation to NACE Middle East & African Branch

contents
Contents
  • Types of passive fireproofing (PFP)
  • Commonly found corrosion problems
  • Corrosion testing for PFP systems
    • UL exterior listing
    • Norsok
    • Comparison
  • Guidance for specifying PFP systems in corrosive environments
  • Summary
  • 20 – 25 minutes
  • Questions & Answers session
types of passive fire protection
Types of passive fire protection
  • Dense Concrete
  • Lightweight Cementitious
  • Solvent based and solvent free Epoxy intumescents
  • Subliming materials
  • Mineral Wool (and other insulations)
iso 12944 c5
ISO 12944 – C5
  • ISO 12944 developed to assist engineers
  • Global standard
  • Designates environments according corrosivity
  • Based upon corrosion of steel < 120ºC
  • C5 - M superseded by ISO 20340
  • Addresses corrosion aspect but not fire performance
  • A typical plant may encompass several environments
    • Jetty
    • Areas around cooling water towers etc
loss of passivation effect
Loss of passivation effect
  • Acidic industrial atmosphere
  • Decrease in pH
  • Leads to loss of passivity
  • Active corrosion beneath cementitious materials
examples of corrosion behind pfp9
Examples of corrosion behind PFP

Corrosion beneath concrete fireproofing – C5I environment (Southern Europe)

Note significant thinning of section flange

examples of corrosion behind pfp10
Examples of corrosion behind PFP

Pitting corrosion behind lightweight cementitious fireproofing C5I

Pitting corrosion caused by ingress of calcium chloride during maintenance on vessel

LPG drier in refinery

examples of corrosion behind pfp11
Examples of corrosion behind PFP

General corrosion behind delaminated fireproofing material C5 - M

Structural steel offshore

examples of corrosion behind pfp12
Examples of corrosion behind PFP

Delamination of topcoat and subsequent deteoriation of passive fire protection material C5-M

Structural steel offshore

examples of corrosion behind pfp13
Examples of corrosion behind PFP

Severe corrosion of structural I sections beneath fireproofing

Chemical Plant USA (C5-I)

examples of corrosion behind pfp14
Examples of corrosion behind PFP

Gas pipe-work support structure

Structural steel onshore C4 / C5-I

examples of corrosion behind pfp15
Examples of corrosion behind PFP

Process vessel and structural steel offshore

Structural steel offshore C5 -M

examples of corrosion behind pfp16
Examples of corrosion behind PFP

LPG Sphere Leg

Structural steel onshore C5 - M

some contributing factors
Some contributing factors
  • No coating or inadequate coating beneath
  • Testing of fire monitors containing water or worse seawater
  • Lack of flashing plates / sealing caps
  • No stand off
  • But no bond to surface either
  • Non destructive NDT difficult / impossible
when specifying fire protection materials
When specifying fire protection materials

What do engineers concentrate on?

  • Fire performance
  • Fire duration
  • Critical core temperature
  • Type of fire (hydrocarbon, cellulosic, jet fire)
  • Cost (Fire protection is a major cost item on new plant)
  • Still too little emphasis on durability and weatherability

For fire protection to be effective it must be present and intact at the time of the fire

how do we define intact
How do we define intact?

Many ways you could define “intact”

  • Unaltered from as built condition
  • Free from significant amounts of water
  • Bonded to the substrate
  • Whole (i.e. free from cracks, corrosion paths etc)
  • But we need something subjective!!
    • i.e. test standard
  • High impact if wrong decision is made
early attempts to measure weathering
Early attempts to measure weathering

DiBt

  • German standard for fireproofing
  • Requires non-accelerated weathering samples
  • Fire tested at regular periods
  • Cellulosic fire protection (buildings)
  • Long time periods involved

GASAFE

  • LPG fire protection program
  • 1990’s
  • Tried to address weathering aspect
  • Limited success
more recent attempts
More Recent Attempts

UL1709

  • UL 1709 addresses fire performance
  • “Exterior listing” addresses weathering
  • Accelerated weathering
  • Will then list complete system
  • Follow up service – compliance with as tested material

NORSOK

  • Numerous revisions (covered later)
  • Designed for offshore (C5-M)
  • Accelerated weathering
  • Generic type based
  • Two categories
norsok m 501 revision 5 versus revision 4
Norsok M-501 Revision 5 versus Revision 4
  • Salt spray and freeze/dry is now a combined cycle
  • Revision 4
    • Salt spray/drying (ISO 7253) + UV-A (G-53) 4200 hours
    • Water / freezing / drying / humidity ISO 2812-2 4200 hours
  • Evaluation of scribe creep has changed
  • Tested without top-coats
corrosion issues with major generic types
Corrosion Issues with major generic types

Dense concrete

  • Prone to damage
  • No bond to substrate (undercutting)
  • Can retain significant amounts of water (spalling)
  • Passivation lost with time in marine / industrial environments
  • Needs weather cap / sealing
  • Lightweight cementitious
  • Prone to damage
  • No bond to substrate (undercutting)
  • Application must be correct
  • Similar to dense concrete
  • Needs Weather cap / sealing
corrosion issues with major generic types27
Corrosion Issues with major generic types

Mineral Fibre / Cladding

  • Prone to damage
  • Very absorbent once cladding damaged
  • Salts in mineral wool may contribute
  • Needs weather cap / sealing
  • Epoxy
  • Offer many performance advantages, however,
  • Generally fire performance / weatherability is a balance
  • Number of materials where balance is incorrect
  • More sensitive to application
  • Careful (and detailed) specification is necessary
some general trends
Some general trends
  • Cement based and mineral fibre systems no longer used in C5-M
  • Cannot exclude problems in C5-I
  • More awareness of extent of C5-M environment
    • Jetties
    • Coastal Refineries + other locations
  • Awareness of these corrosion issues
  • Not translated into action in many parts of industry
  • Corrosivity of project location remains un-established (Quantitatively)
guidance for specifying pfp performance
Guidance for specifying PFP performance
  • Be aware of the problem
  • Know your environment
  • Question existing practises
    • Materials
    • Construction details
  • Consider key areas and potential for upgrade
  • Consider suitable weatherability criteria
    • UL / Norsok
  • In conjunction with fire performance
  • These are safety critical decisions
demonstrated performance by case history
Demonstrated performance by case history
  • Applied in 1976
  • Inspected and analysed
  • BAM - 1992
  • No chemical changes in material detected
  • Intumescent chemicals unaffected
  • C5-M Refinery (The Netherlands)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Corrosion behind some types of passive fire protection is a real risk
  • Durability is as important as initial fire performance
  • Test procedures exist which can distinguish materials performance
  • Recognised and workable standards
  • Available to use
questions
Questions

Ian.Bradley@AkzoNobel.com