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OIE Global conference on Aquatic Animal Health Programmes : Their benefits for global food security Panama City, Panama PowerPoint Presentation
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Aquatic Animal Health Management in Vietnam and Strategy for 5-years Development. OIE Global conference on Aquatic Animal Health Programmes : Their benefits for global food security Panama City, Panama 28-30 June 2011. Nguyen Cong Dan and Le Van Khoa. Department of Animal Health, Vietnam.

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slide1

Aquatic Animal Health Management in Vietnam and Strategy for 5-years Development

OIE Global conference on Aquatic Animal Health Programmes: Their benefits for global food security

Panama City, Panama 28-30 June 2011

Nguyen Cong Dan and Le Van Khoa

Department of Animal Health, Vietnam

slide2

Contents:

  • Vietnam aquaculture:
    • General introduction
    • Government support
  • Aquatic Animal Health Management:
    • Structure of veterinary services
    • Aquatic animal health system
      • Structure
      • Important and emerging diseases
  • Strategy for 5 years development of aquatic animal health (2011-2015)
    • management system;
    • human capacities and technical authority;
    • national cooperation; and
    • international co operations and private sector involvements
slide4

South-East Asian borders to China, Laos and Cambodia.

  • Total area: 330,000 km2
  • Population: 85.79 million (2009)
  • Agro-ecological regions.
  • 63 provinces and cities.
  • Warm and humid climate
slide7

Red River Delta

Mekong River Delta

slide12

Rivers and canals:

1,000’s km long

slide16

Aquaculture Area Distribution (2010)

9.4%

Mekong River Delta

Red River Delta

Remaining Area

19.2%

71.4%

slide17

Aquatic Species Biodiversity

  • 2,030 species of endemic fish
  • 1,600 species of endemic crustaceans
  • 2,500 species of endemic shellfish
  • many seaweed species
  • 165 species of commercial importance

71 fresh water, 49 brackish water, 45 marine

  • Major export species:
  • Aquaculture: Black tiger shrimp (P. monodon), white leg shrimp (L. vannamei), Mekong catfish (Pangasius), lobsters, tilapia.
  • Capture: tuna, makeral, sardin and some others
aquaculture and capture fisheries production
Aquaculture and Capture Fisheries Production

Year Aquaculture Capture (tons) (tons)

1999 480,800 1,526,000

2000 589,600 1,660,900

2001 709,900 1,724,800

2002 844,800 1,802,600

2003 1,003,100 1,856,100

2004 1,202,500 1,940,000

2005 1,478,000 1,987,000

2006 1,694,000 2,001,700

2007 1,950,000 2,020,000

2008 2,280,000 2,050,000

2010 2,800,000 2,100,000

aquaculture fish and shrimp production
Aquaculture Fish and Shrimp Production

Year Fish Shrimp

(tons) (tons)

1999 336,000 57,500

2000 391,100 93,500

2001 421,000 154,900

2002 486,400 186,200

2003 604,400 237,900

2004 761,600 281,800

2005 971,200 327,200

2006 1,148,000 354,600

2007 1,575,000 375,000

2008 1,893,000 387,000

2010 2,375,000 425,000

slide20

Shrimp and Fish Production Distribution (2010)

15%

15%

3%

Mekong River Delta

Red River Delta

Remaining Area

18%

67%

82%

Shrimp

Fish

contribution of fisheries
Contribution of Fisheries
  • Export value (2010): US$ 5.02 billions
    • Shrimps: US$ 2.1 billions
    • Mekong river catfish (Pangasius): US$ 2.02 billions
    • Others: US$ 0.9 billions
  • Contribution to GDP (2010): 4%
  • Job generation: 4.5 millions
  • Fisheries supplies: 40 % of animal protein in Vietnamese food
  • Fish consumption: est. 15 kg/capita (highest 60kg/capita in coastal regions)
slide22

Government Support for Fisheries

  • Law of Fisheries:
  • Aquaculture area planning
  • Feed and chemicals used in aquaculture
  • Rights and responsibilities of aquaculture individuals/groups
  • Ordinal of Veterinary:
    • develop to animal health law (in process to submit to National Assembly in 2012)
      • Terrestrial animals
      • Aquatic Animals: to be included
  • National Aquaculture Development Programme 224
  • for period 1999 – 2010
  • National Fisheries Development Plan: 2011 – 2020
  • National Fisheries Biotechnology Programme: 2007 – 2015
structure of veterinary services
Structure of Veterinary Services

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

  • DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL HEALTH
    • Functional Divisions:
      • - Personnel and Administration
      • - Epidemiology (Terrestrial)
      • - Aquatic Animal Health
      • - Inspection & Quarantine
      • - Drug & Vaccine Management
      • - Legislation & Inspection
      • - Plan (Inter. Cooperation & Sciences)
      • - Finance

Veterinary Drug and Vaccine Company

National Institute of Veterinary Research

5 Professional Centers

The National Center for Vet. Diagnosis

 The National Centers for Quality control of Vet. Drugs No. 1, 2

 The National Centers for Vet. Hygiene Inspection No.1, 2

7 Regional Animal Health Offices (RAHOs)

Provincial Sub-Departments of Animal Health

Regional Sub Departments of Animal Quarantine and Inspection in Lang Son, Lao Cai and Quang Ninh

District Veterinary

Stations

Domestic Inspection Stations

Communal Veterinary Team

structure of aquatic animal health
Structure of Aquatic Animal Health

Since Jan. 2008

Before Jan. 2008

Ministry of Fisheries

(MoFi)

Ministry of Agriculture &

Rural Development (MARD)

NAFIQAVED

NAFIQAD

Department of

Animal Health

Directorate

of Fisheries

6 regional offices &

57 provincial offices

6 regional offices

7 regional offices

ALL seed, feeds, drugs, chemicals and fertilizers used in aquaculture MANAGED by NAFIQAVED

Provincial level

(Setting-up)

Provincial level

Under development

63 provincial sub-DAH

District Unit

& Commune unit or

veterinarians

structure of aquatic animal health26
Structure of Aquatic Animal Health

Decision 1427 by MARD (JUNE 2009)

Ministry of Agriculture &

Rural Development (MARD)

NAFIQAD

Department of

Animal Health

Directorate

of Fisheries

Quality of fish seeds, feeds and fertilizers

Quality of EXPORTED aquatic products for human consumption

{

Aquatic animal epidemiology and Surveillance

Quarantine and inspection of live aquatic animals (import-export-domestic) and IMPORT aquatics animal products (except for human consumption)

Drugs, chemicals, probiotics

Hygienic practices in aquaculture

important diseases in vietnam aquaculture
Important diseases in Vietnam Aquaculture
  • White Spot Disease
    • Area affected accounts app. 10-20% (80,000 ha.)
  • Taura Syndrome (TS)
    • No outbreak reported
    • Positive cases and mortality found
  • Yellow Head Disease (YHD)
    • No outbreak reported
    • Positive cases and mortality found
  • Monodon Baculovirus (MBV)
    • Cause slow growth
    • Positive found 10-15% in seed populations
  • Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN)
    • First reported in 2009, No outbreaks reported
    • Recently found positive cases from imported white shrimp broodstocks
slide28

Important diseases in Vietnam Aquaculture

  • Milky Lobster Disease
    • First found in 2007, mortality accounted: 80 – 100%
    • Species affected: Spiny lobsters (Panulirus ornatus and P. homarus)
    • Causative pathogen: Rickettsia-like bacteria
slide29

Important diseases in Vietnam Aquaculture

  • Enteric Septicaemia of Vietnamese Catfish
    • Species affected: Pangasianodon hypophthalmus
    • Causative agent: Edwardsiella ictaluri
slide30

Important diseases in Vietnam Aquaculture

  • Red Spot Disease of Carps
    • Species affected: grass carp, black carp, common carp, Indian carps,…
    • Pathogen: Aeromonas hydrophilla
slide31

Important diseases in Vietnam Aquaculture

  • Streptococosis in Tilapia
    • First outbreak reported in August 2009 in northern provinces of Vietnam, losses up to 90% in the affected areas
slide32

Important diseases in Vietnam Aquaculture

  • Viral nervous necrosis (VNN)
    • - most serious marine disease in cage-culture/hatcheries, mortality up to 90% in fingerlings
slide33

Important diseases in Vietnam Aquaculture

  • Vibriosis in Cobia and other marine species (grouper, red drum,…)
emerging diseases
Emerging diseases
  • Hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome
    • First found in April 2011 in Mekong delta
    • Mortality: average 65% (90% in intensive cultured systems, most heavy losses in Soc Trang province)
    • Affected species: both P. monodon and L. vannamei
    • Unknown pathogen (to date)
    • Clinical signs
    • Findings
emerging diseases35
Emerging diseases
  • Hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome
    • Clinical signs
      • In early stages of the mortality, clinical signs were almost not clear.
      • P. monodon died at the age of 20-30 days post stocking (35-45 days age),
      • while white leg shrimp L. vannamei died at the age of 30-35 days (45-50 days age).
      • slow growth rate,
      • loose shells,
      • and discoloration,
      • swelled and soften liver,
      • atrophied hepatopancreas,
      • occasionally black spots in the necrosis hepatopancreas
emerging diseases36
Emerging diseases
  • Hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome: Findings (Prof. Dr. Don Lightner)
    • Histology:
      • No lesions diagnostic of infection by the Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacteria G. {HP-B) or by microsporidians, were detected.
      • The main pathologies found within these hepatopancreas tissues are suggestive of a toxic syndrome.
      • The toxin responsible could possibly come from the environment (water, feed, etc.) or from some type of bacteria.
    • PCR:
      • ALL submitted samples negative with:
        • NHP,
        • Spiroplasma penaei,
        • Microsporidian: Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei
other diseases pathogens of importance
Other diseases/pathogens of importance
  • Diseases of coldwater fishes due to importation of fertilized eggs of rainbow trout and sturgeon from EU countries for incubation and aquaculture.
  • Diseases of mollusks: less research investment
  • Diseases of ornamental fish: less research investment
  • Fishborn Zoonotic Parasites: Metaceacaria stages of liver fluke in fish
  • Diseases of Amphibians: Chytrid fungus?
  • Diseases of wild aquatic animals: no investment (so far)
national strategy for five years development of aquatic animal health 2011 to 2015
National strategy for five years development of aquatic animal health (2011 to 2015)
  • 1) to build up management system of aquatic animal health;
  • 2) to improve human capacities and technical authority;
  • 3) to strengthen national cooperation; and
  • 4) to strengthen international co operations and private sector involvements
national strategy
National strategy

1) to build up management system of aquatic animal health:

  • Fully operation from central government to localities;
  • Legislations and regulations
  • Sufficient man-power for management;
  • Sufficient infrastructures;
  • Investment on:
    • Development and application of the eradication programmes for important diseases of aquatic species
    • Strengthen of aquatic animal disease surveillance system base on OIE guidelines
    • Application of GMP in veterinary drugs production
    • Strengthen quarantine and inspection of fish and fisheries products import/export based on OIE guideline on aquatic animal health code
national strategy41
National strategy

2) to improve human capacities and technical authority and capability on:

  • Epidemiology and surveillance,
  • disease reporting
  • risk analysis,
  • laboratory diagnosis,
  • disease control and warning;
  • quarantine and inspection; and
  • drug management.
national strategy42
National strategy

3) to strengthen national cooperation between DAH with:

  • National Agro Forestry Fisheries Quality Assurance Department (NAFIQAD);
  • Directorate of Fisheries;
  • Research Institutes for Aquaculture No.1, 2 and 3 (RIA.1,2&3)
  • Can Tho University;
  • Nong Lam University, Nha Trang University;
  • Fisheries colleges
  • Private sectors: VASEP, VINAFIS,…
national strategy43
National strategy

4) to strengthen international cooperation:

  • OIE
    • Disease reporting
    • Reference laboratories: diagnostic assistance, supports and consultancies; trainings and education; calibration programmes; and finding new diseases/problems
  • FAO/NACA
    • Consultancies, Trainings and education, finding new diseases
    • Assisting for financial support to strentheng aquatic animal health system and application of OIE standards
  • WCS (Wild Animal Conservation Society)
  • CITES
  • CODEX
  • WTO/SPS
  • Privates and Associations