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Nicotine. Chapter 7. History of Tobacco . History of Tobacco & Nicotine Smoking practiced among the early Mayas, probably in the district of Tabasco, Mexico, as part of their religious ceremonies 86-161 AD

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Chapter 7

history of tobacco
History of Tobacco

History of Tobacco & Nicotine

  • Smoking practiced among the early Mayas, probably in the district of Tabasco, Mexico, as part of their religious ceremonies 86-161 AD
  • Europeans’ first exposure from Columbus 1492. Exposure was not widespread. Tobacco was not well thought of at first
history of tobacco3
History of Tobacco

1560 - Marked as 1st yr tobacco officially introduced to Europe

Proponents of tobacco

  • Sir Francis Drake
  • Sir Walter Raleigh
    • Led to the fashionability of pipe smoking of tobacco
history of tobacco4
History of Tobacco

King James I of England

  • 1604 - Pamphlet condemning tobacco
    • “bewitching of tobacco”

Early 1700s Russia

    • “Westernization” of people
    • penalties for smoking (torture, Siberian exile, death)
history of tobacco5
History of Tobacco

By 17th century

  • Tobacco here to stay
    • In Western Europe, used as treatment for migraines
    • Japan & China stop enforcing prohibition of use
    • Russia opens door to West
    • Sultan of Turkey begins to smoke
history of tobacco6
History of Tobacco
  • 1828 - Nicotine was isolated
  • Cigarettes first appeared in 1850s, but chewing still more popular
tobacco nicotine in us
Tobacco & Nicotine In US
  • In U.S., tobacco became major commodity in early 1600s, used as currency
  • Financed Revolutionary War
    • Ben Franklin promised Virginia's tobacco to France
    • Had it not been for tobacco, no French assistance & no USA
tobacco use in 20 th century
Tobacco Use in 20th Century

Future favored cigarettes over other usage

  • New emphasis on social manners
  • Public health issues of infectious disease
    • decrease in chewing except in small rural towns of U.S.
  • Women began smoking
    • But, 1904 NYC woman arrested for smoking in public
  • 1920s - “reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet”
    • Promoted weight loss effects
  • Also cigarettes in WWI
tobacco nicotine in us9
Tobacco & Nicotine In US
  • 1890s - no medicinal value for nicotine
    • dropped from U.S. pharmacopia
  • 1925 - 14 states banned smoking
  • 1938 - study linking cigarettes & lung cancer
  • 1954 - more stats relating smoking to lung cancer & cardiovascular disease
  • 1964 - first Surgeon General's report
    • advised smoking shortens life expectancy
  • 1986 - Surgeon General's report on passive smoking
  • Use continued to decline over past twenty years
  • 2000 – Worldwide consumption still on increase
nicotine forms
Nicotine Forms
  • Tobacco
    • Smokeable
      • Cigarette
      • Pipe
      • Cigar
    • Leaf (Chewing)
    • Leaf (Dip)
    • Snuff (powdered)
  • Transdermal Patch
  • Grind tobacco into fine powder
  • Pinch into nose & exhale with sneeze (cleared head of “superfluous humours”)
  • 1700s – snuff overtook smoking as method of choice
    • Started in France & spread through rest of Europe

In U.S., snuffing replaced by chewing

  • Freed hands for working
  • Low cost - democratic custom all could have
  • “spitting” seen as nasty habit, also health issue
    • Major cause of spread of infectious disease (TB)
cigar smoking
Cigar Smoking
  • Tight rolls of tobacco leaves
  • Flue-curing - process of heating tobacco leaves
    • to cure them, makes milder smoke
  • Also new type of leaf
    • North Carolina #1 tobacco-growing center
  • Mixed effects of chewing with ingestion of smoke
  • Rolls of shredded tobacco wrapped in paper
  • 1614 – Invented by beggars in Seville, Spain from scrap of cigars
  • 1856 - Became popular with English soldiers in Crimean War - Spread throughout Europe

U.S, not inclined to use it

    • Public image
    • Rumors of opium, arsenic laced paper, & camel dung,
    • Also image:

cigarette - dainty & “sissy”

vs. cigars - fat, long & dark


1881 - James Bonsack patented cigarette-making machine

  • Made cigarettes even more low-cost
  • Revolutionized tobacco industry
    • From 300 cigarettes per hour by hand to 3 machines producing 200 cigarettes per minute
cigarette smoking
Cigarette Smoking

Nicotine in a cigarette – 8 to 10 mg

Smoking – delivers about 1-3 mg to the smoker

Technique of smoker can increase nicotine (time smoke is in lungs, rapid puffing)

nicotine pharmacology
Nicotine Pharmacology
  • Biphasic action- nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    • Agonist – low doses
    • Antagonist – high doses
  • Although a stimulant, it is often used to relax
  • Works in CNS and PNS
  • One of the most toxic dependence-producing psychoactive compounds overall
    • Nicotine acts to stimulate dopamine release in mesolimbic dopamine pathway (reward center).
nicotine pharmacology18
Nicotine Pharmacology
  • One of most powerful poisons ingested by Americans
    • LD50 60 mg
  • Can't happen via inhalation
  • Orally, two protections against death
    • quick first pass metabolism through liver
    • activation of vomiting center
peripheral effects
Peripheral Effects
  • A sympathomimetic
    • Increases heart rate, blood pressure, respiration
  • A parasympathomimetic
    • Increases smooth muscle (GI tract) activity
    • Increases HCL production in stomach
central effects
Central Effects
  • Arousal
  • Improves vigilance & rapid information processing
  • Improves mental performance & memory
  • Stimulates adrenalin and ADH release
  • Nicotine may reverse some deficits caused by alcohol
biotransformation excretion
  • Broken down by lung and liver
    • >90% in liver
  • Metabolization of nicotine and other toxins in cigarette smoking lowers blood levels of many important drugs.
  • Excreted through kidneys (urine)
  • Lungs do some excretion
  • Develops rapidly
    • Within the first exposure for some effects
      • Area Postrema
    • Can build up and dissipate over the course of a day
    • Chronic tolerance happens as well
  • Dispositional Tolerance
    • Some smokers clear nicotine faster
  • One of the most dependence-producing drugs
    • Pharmacology – Stimulates reward center influences ANS
    • Function – Weight control, coping with negative affect/stress, cognitive enhancement
    • Social Factors – Friends, habit, context
withdrawal symptoms of nicotine
Withdrawal Symptomsof Nicotine
  • Lethargy, decreased arousal
  • Constipation
  • Headaches
  • Disrupted sleep cycles
  • Irritability/anxiety
  • Excessive hunger (blood sugar drop)
compounds in tobacco
Compounds in Tobacco
  • Tar - sticky substance
    • Amount varies from 12 - 16mg to 6mg
    • Last 3rd of cigarette contains 50% of tar (final puffs more hazardous)
    • Prevents cilia from working, decreases cilia escalator
    • Increases carcinogens compounds to settle on tissue rather than being expelled
compounds in tobacco26
Compounds in Tobacco

Carbon Monoxide

  • Odorless & tasteless, but extremely toxic
  • Attaches to hemoglobin
    • Hemoglobin has greater affinity for CO than oxygen
      • Accumulation of CO occurs
      • Leads to asphyxiation of body
health effects of nicotine addiction
Health Effects of Nicotine Addiction
  • Cardiovascular Disease
    • Most likely killer
  • Cancer
    • Approx 90% of all lung cancer
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    • All long-term smokers get some level of COPD
    • Emphysema most serious
approaches to treatment
Approaches to Treatment
  • Self-help
  • Behavioral intervention
  • Pharmacotherapy
  • Combined strategies
nicotine replacement
Nicotine Replacement
  • Nicotine gum
  • Transdermal nicotine
  • Nicotine aerosols
  • Clonidine
  • SSRIs
  • Zyban
quitting overall
Quitting Overall
  • Combination of strategies works best
  • Behavioral + replacement + pharmacotherapy
  • Quitting reduces risk of all-cause mortality among other diseases
  • Risk of lung cancer remains elevated but drops significantly