Methods of Measuring Crime. Uniform Crime Reports. Self- Report Surveys. Victim Surveys. Based on Crimes Reported to the Police. Based on a population unit of 100,000 people. Divided into two representative categories: Indexed and non-Indexed. Reported for U.S., Cities, and SMSA’s.
Uniform Crime Reports
Self- Report Surveys
1. Asks victims about their encounters with criminals
2. Nationally representative sample
3. May also describe people most at risk 4. Limitations:
Little information about offenders
Cannot assess some crimes
Limitations of Survey Research
Problems with the age crime curve:
Research that tracks an identifiable
group of individuals over a long period
After following a birth cohort of 9,945 boys
born in Philadelphia in 1945, Wolfgang and
his associates found that 6% of the total sample
were responsible for 51.9% of all offenses.
These were referred to as chronic offendersor
career criminals. Similar research has resulted
in similar findings.
The cohort follow-ups clearly show that
most chronic juvenile offenders continue
their law-violating careers as adults.
Then and ………….. NOW
If the “Onset” of offending occurs in childhood for some kids, you must start your explanation at that point.
Why do some kids begin their offending in adolescence?