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Breeding for Arthropod (insects and mites) Resistance in Plants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Breeding for Arthropod (insects and mites) Resistance in Plants Total average yield loss in U.S. to pests about 36% (12% each to pathogens, insects, and weeds) Culture and training Chemical pesticides Integrated pest management . Breeding for Arthropod Resistance in Plants

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Breeding for Arthropod (insects and mites) Resistance in Plants
  • Total average yield loss in U.S. to pests about 36% (12% each to pathogens, insects, and weeds)
  • Culture and training
  • Chemical pesticides
  • Integrated pest management
slide2
Breeding for Arthropod Resistance in Plants
  • Many similarities between breeding for disease and insect resistance – differences in terminology; greater emphasis on mechanisms of resistance; main difference is the mobility of insects
  • Problem with breeding techniques (insect controlled nurseries) – deliberate selection for insect resistance not common; (insect general resistance erosion?)
slide3
History
  • Grape phylloxera (1860 – present day)
    • French wine production fell 70% between 1863-1875
    • Both insect and source of resistance from NA
slide4
Mechanisms of Resistance
  • 3 categories – Originated with R. H. Painter
  • (1) Nonpreference (Antixenosis) – Complex of plant characteristics which prevent insects from approaching, landing, settling, feeding or ovipositing; it affects the behavior of the insects (altered number of insects landing or number laying eggs); has been termed non-acceptance
    • (Allelo)chemical nonpreference: volatile (released into air and sensed by insect before they land) or sensed or tasted by insect after contact or during feeding: Examples: Raspberry aphid; Sugarbeet aphid; Rice brown planthopper
    • Morphological nonpreference: leaf hairiness, stem hardness: cereal leaf beetle; wheat stem sawfly
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Raspberry aphid damage by Amphorophora ideai

11 Major genes for resistance

Resistance identified by aphids walking off leaves (antixenosis)

slide7

Sugarbeet aphid resistance

Four genes identified for resistance to aphid settling

(anitxenosis)

slide8

Rice brown planthopper resistance

Resistance based on the absence of asparagine production (antixenosis)

slide9

Cereal leaf beetle

Morphological non-preference

slide11

Wheat stem sawfly

Morphological non-preference

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Mechanisms of Resistance
  • (2) Antibiosis – Defensive compounds which affects the reproduction of insects; interferes with longevity, oviposition rate, generation time, and preadult mortality; it affects insect's physiology.
    • reduce insect growth, inhibit reproduction, alter physiology, delay maturity; European corn borer resistance in corn (DIMBOA, cyclic hydroxamic acid); greenbug resistance in barley (benzyl alcohol concentration)
slide14

European corn borer damage

Resistance in leaves due to inhibition of larval growth by cyclic hydroxamic acid (DIMBOA) (antibiosis)

slide15

Greenbug resistance in barley

Damage caused by toxin secretion into leaves; resistance due to benzyl alcohol concentration (antibiosis)

slide16
Mechanisms of Resistance
  • (3) Tolerance – Complex of plant characteristics which allow the plant to endure some amount of insect attack without affecting yield or quality. Has no effect on the insect population (no selection pressure)
slide18
Klingler et al., 2005. Aphid Resistance in Medicago truncatula Involves

Antixenosis and Phloem-Specific, Inducible Antibiosis, and Maps to a Single Locus Flanked by NBS-LRR Resistance Gene Analogs. Plant Physiology 137:1445-1455.

M. truncatula – barrel medic, annual pasture legume

bluegreen aphid

slide19

Resistance in 'Jester' due to non-preference (non-settling) in both field and greenhouse experiments

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Resistance in 'Jester' due to antibiosis (reduced aphid survival and reduced population growth rate

slide21

Segregation ratios strongly support a single, dominant gene controlling bluegreen aphid resistance in 'Jester'. Mapped locus to region flanked by resistance gene analogs predicted to encode the CC-NBS-LRR subfamily of resistance proteins.