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A Bug’s Life. Entomology. Study of insects Most successful and preponderant taxon Most diverse of taxon Specially beetles: weevils Ants have largest biomass on globe. Phylum Arthropoda = jointed feet Insects, spiders, scorpions, sun spiders, ticks, mites, trilobites.

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Presentation Transcript
entomology
Entomology
  • Study of insects
  • Most successful and preponderant taxon
  • Most diverse of taxon
    • Specially beetles: weevils
  • Ants have largest biomass on globe
arthropods
Phylum Arthropoda

= jointed feet

Insects, spiders, scorpions, sun spiders, ticks, mites, trilobites

Sea spiders, crabs, shrimp, lobsters, amphipods, isopods, millipedes, centipedes

Arthropods
characteristics
Characteristics
  • Exoskeleton
    • Chitin
  • Open circulatory system
    • Heart, ostia, dorsal blood vessel
  • Double ganglionated ventral nerve cord
insects
Springtails

Silverfish, firebrats

Mayflies

Dragonflies, damselflies

Earwigs

Crickets, hoppers, katydids

Roaches

True bugs

Bed bugs

Beetles

Dung, carrion, etc.

Flies

Moths, butterflies

Fleas

Lice

Thrips

Insects
relation to ecology
Relation to ecology
  • How do insects communicate?
  • CHEMICALS
chemicals
Chemicals
  • 2 types
  • Pheromones: same species
    • 2 types
    • Releasers: elicit immediate response
    • Primers: modify physiological state
      • Caste designation in termites
  • Allomones: different species
scheme
Scheme
  • Scheme similar to symbioses
  • Sender/receiver
  • +/+ → synomones
  • +/- → allomones
  • -/+ → kairomones
  • -/- → antimones
synomones allomones
Synomones (+/+) : Allomones
  • Flower odors
  • Sweet smell
  • Foul smell
synomones pheromones
Synomones (+/+) : Pheromones
  • Sex
    • Practically every insect
  • Aggregation
    • Aposematics
  • Anti-aggregation
    • Bark beetles
  • Trail
    • ants
  • Alarm
    • Ants
    • Aphids
    • Social wasps, bees
defense allomones
Defense Allomones (+/-)
  • TONS of arthropods
  • Released from glands
  • Hymenopterans
  • Roaches
  • Dung beetles
  • Aquatic insects
  • True bugs
    • Cosmopepla bimaculata
    • Triatoma spp.
defense allomones13
Defense Allomones (+/-)
  • Stick insects of North Am.
  • Bombardier beetle
  • Termites
  • Caterpillars
    • osmeteria
  • Vinegaroon
  • Millipedes
  • Anti-aphrodisiac pheromone
    • Gnats, mussies
  • Anti-oviposition pheromone
    • Leave “scent” → don’t oviposit
    • Egg mimic on plants
defense allomones14
Defense Allomones (+/-)
  • Sequestration
    • Caterpillars, moths, butterflies
    • True bugs
    • Beetles
  • Reflex-bleeding
    • Spanish fly
allomones kairomones
Allomones : Kairomones (-/+)
  • Release of aphid alarm pheromone
  • Human sweat → female mussies
  • Leaf “scent” → oviposition/feeding
  • Tritrophic Level Interactions
  • Caterpillar → Leaf→ Parasitoid wasp
  • Sound cues!
    • Crickets chirp → Parasitoid flies