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EE 5359 Multimedia Processing Project Report .
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Implementation of AIC based on I-frame only coding in H.264 and comparison with other still frame image coding standards such as JPEG, JPEG 2000, JPEG-LS and JPEG-XR
EE Graduate student,
Supervising Professor: Dr.K.R.Rao
The University of Texas at Arlington
July 24th, 2008
(a) Encoder 
(b) Decoder 
It is a still image compression system which is a combination of H.264 and JPEG standards.
Y, Cb, Cr Blks
(a) M-AIC Encoder 
(b) M-AIC Decoder 
CC - color conversion, ICC - Inverse CC, ZZ – zig-zag scan, IZZ – inverse ZZ, AAC – adaptive arithmetic coder, AAD – AA decoder.
(a) Encoder 
(b) Decoder 
Block diagram of JPEG 2000 (a) encoder (b) decoder
Adaptive VLC table switching
Employs fully reversible transforms
HD photo format supports high dynamic range encoding possible through floating point algorithm.
It minimizes objectionable spatial artifacts preserving high frequency detail and outperforms other lossy compression standards in this regard.
Its image quality is comparable to JPEG2000 with computational and memory requirements closely comparable with JPEG.
Reversible int-int mapping LBT
Reversible int-int mapping inverse LBT
Block based encoderJPEG-XR
a) HD photo encoder
b) HD photo decoder
Compressed image data
Basic block diagram of JPEG-LS
Lena (512x512) Airplane (512x512) Peppers (512x512) Sailboat (512x512)
Splash (512x512) Couple (256x256) Lena (256x256) Lena (128x128)
Cameraman (256x256) man (256x256) Lena (64x64) Lena (32x32)
The command line arguments for JM13.2 software are:
where quality factor –N denotes the scale quantization tables to adjust image quality. Quality factor varies from 0 (worst) to 100 (best); default is 75.
where rate specifies target rate as a positive real number. Rate=1 corresponds to no compression
MSE and PSNR for a NxM pixel image are defined as
where x is the original image and y is the reconstructed image. M and N are the width and height of an image and ‘L’ is the maximum pixel value in the NxM pixel image. L=255 for 8 bit depth image.
where 24 is used for color images and 8 for gray scale.
where μ is the mean intensity, and σis the standard deviation as a round estimate of the signal contrast. C1 and C2 are constants. M is the numbers of samples in the quality map.
Original AIC, quality -52.83bpp,HDphoto, quality-28, 2.88bpp, JPEG quality-94, 2.94bpp,
36.61dB, SSIM-0.914 37.74dB, SSIM-0.928 35.6dB, SSIM-0.926
JPEG-LS error value-11, 2.8bpp, JPEG2000 rate=0.12, 2.95bpp, H.264 quantization parameter-16, 2.83bpp, 32.425dB, SSIM- 0818 37.53dB, SSIM-0.923 46.81dB, SSIM-0.917
 AIC website: http://www.bilsen.com/aic/
 T. Wiegand et. al, “Overview of the H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 13, pp.560-576, July 2003.
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 H.264/AVC reference software (JM 13.2) Website: http://iphome.hhi.de/suehring/tml/download/
 JPEG reference software website: ftp://ftp.simtel.net/pub/simtelnet/msdos/graphics/jpegsr6.zip
 Microsoft HD photo specification: http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/xps/wmphotoeula.mspx
 JPEG2000 latest reference software (Jasper Version 1.900.0) Website: http://www.ece.ubc.ca/mdadams/jasper
 JPEG-LS reference software website http://www.hpl.hp.com/loco/
 M.D. Adams, “JasPer software reference manual (Version 1.900.0),” ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 N 2415, Dec. 2007.
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 Ibid, “LOCO-I A low complexity context-based, lossless image compression algorithm”, Proc. 1996, pp.140-149, Snowbird, Utah, Mar. 1996.
 K. Sayood, “Introduction to Data Compression”, Third Edition, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2006.
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 Z. Wang and A. C. Bovik, “Modern image quality assessment”, Morgan and Claypool Publishers, 2006.
 Special Issue on JPEG-2000, Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 17, pp. 1-144, Jan 2002.
 A. Stoica, C. Vertan, and C. Fernandez-Maloigne, “Objective and subjective color image quality evaluation for JPEG 2000- compressed images,” IEEEInt’l Symposium on Signals, Circuits and Systems, vol. 1, pp. 137 – 140, July 2003.
 J. J. Hwang and S. G. Cho, “Proposal for objective distortion metrics for AIC standardization”, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 N4548, Mar 2008.
 H. R. Wu and K. R. Rao, “Digital video image quality and perceptual coding,” Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis, 2006.
 Test images found in: http://www.hlevkin.com/default.html#testimages
 Information collected for various topics included in the material: www-ee.uta.edu/dip
 Zhengbing Zhang, Radhika Veerla, K.R.Rao, “A modified advanced image coding”, to appear in Proceedings of CANS’ 2008, Romania, Nov. 8-10, 2008.