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human responsibility for environmental conservation conservation in hong kong n.
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Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation - Conservation in Hong Kong PowerPoint Presentation
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Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation - Conservation in Hong Kong

Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation - Conservation in Hong Kong

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Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation - Conservation in Hong Kong

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  1. Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation- Conservation in Hong Kong Dr Benny Chan and Dr Billy Hau Department of Ecology & Biodiversity The University of Hong Kong

  2. Learning Support Centres • http://ecology.hku.hk/jupas • For downloads of the PowerPoint file and web-based resources Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  3. Ecology • Study the interactions of organisms and the environment • Conservation Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  4. Aims Conservation in Hong Kong: • Env. laws in protecting endangered species • Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) • Country parks • Marine parks/Marine reserves • Wetlands and RAMSAR convention • Artificial coral reef and fisheries • Pollution controls and industrial health Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  5. Animals and Plants (protection of endangered species ordinance) Cap. 187 • 1973 enforce with CITES • 187 countries applied • Restrict trading of live, dead or products of endangered species listed in cap 187 • Endangered species education centre Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  6. Wild animals Protection Ordinance (Cap 170) • Protect collection and hunting of wild animals • AFCD web-site Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  7. Town planning ordinance (Cap 131) • Divide the land use into 4 different zones: • Residential, commercial, industrial • Green belt – visual and noise screening • Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) • Conservation areas – more sensitive areas – separate SSI from active development • Country Park • Coastal Protection Area – high quality and scenic coastline Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  8. Site of special scientific interest SSSI • Conservation of biodiversity • First step: to identify areas that have high biodiversity • Town planning ordinance in 1975 • Areas that contain important/special species for scientific studies are listed as Site of Special Scientific interest Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  9. What is the aim of SSSI? • Urbanization and development can destroy a large amount of habitats – including areas that may contain rare or endangered species. • To assign an area as SSSI is to draw attention when development will involve the destruction of those areas Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  10. Where can we find SSSI in Hong Kong? • 64 SSI have been designated • Cape d’Aguilar – two rare trees – Keleleeriafortunei – SSI • Yim Tsao Ha, Sha Tau Kok – important breeding grounds for egrets. • Mai Po – gei wai and important wetlands for supporting species of wildlife. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  11. Conservation status of SSSI • Not all SSIs are receive legal protection • Only those covered by the Town Planning ordinance are protected by restricting land use. • Environmental Impact Assessment ordinance (EIAO) – potential impacts of the construction near or inside the SSI must be assessed Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  12. Limitation of SSSI • SSI that are not in Town Planning Ordinance are serve as administrative purpose only • No regular monitoring and management of SSI • No monitoring of unauthorized developments • No clear boundary of SSI Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  13. Country parks and nature reserves – Country parks ordinance (Cap 208) • Country parks ordinance in 1976: • To protect water catchment area, nature conservation and provide recreational space for population • 23 country parks and 15 special areas Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  14. Tai Po Kau Nature Reserve Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  15. Biodiversity Hot spots • Area with highest species counted in the taxa • How well are the hotspots are protected in Hong Kong? • Target species? • Criteria in selecting sites for conservation in Hong Kong Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  16. How well do hot spots protected? Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  17. Identifying gaps • Identify target species and their hot spot sites: • Endemic to HK • Global/region distribution restricted • China Red Data Book as endangered species • Native species Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  18. Hong Kong Marine habitats Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  19. Threats to marine biodiversity • Trawling impact on seabeds • Illegal use of explosives to catch fishes • Reclamation • Pollution • Overfishing Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  20. Development of the marine parks ordinance (Cap 476) • From 1975, there are 27 SSI are coastal habitats • Marine parks and Reserves Working group – marine ecologist, government officials and fisherman representatives. • 1995, Marine Parks Ordinance – framework for marine parks and marine reserve designation and management Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  21. Marine parks and reserves Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

  22. Yan Chau Tong • A variety of landscape – mudflats and rocky shores • Target protect species: • stony corals and sea grass Zostrea japonica Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  23. Hoi Ha Wan • Sheltered bay with clean water quality • Protection of coral communities and mangroves • Trawling are not allowed, Fishing – permit system Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  24. Lung Kwu Chau and Sha Chau • Western waters • Low salinity – Pearl River discharge • Protection target: Chinese white dolphin Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  25. Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  26. Tung Ping Chau • Small island at the eastern waters of Hong Kong • Protection target: Coral communities and seaweed beds Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  27. Cape d’Aguilar Marine reserves • What are marine reserves? • “no take” area • Restricted area and inhibit all activities involved in collection of organisms or harmful to the habitat. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  28. Cape d’Aguilar Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  29. Shores around Cape d’Aguilar Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  30. Zonation patterns Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  31. Field Trip (18/1/2003) • Gathering point – 10:00 am – Ground floor of Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building • 11:00 – Bus arrive Cape d’Aguilar • 11:00 – 13:00 – Conducting transects surveys • 13:00 – 14:00 – Lunch time and free activities • 14:00 – Bus leaves Cape d’Aguilar Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  32. Green turtles • Green turtle – highly endangered species – CITES, protected under the Wild Animals Protection Ordinance • Green turtles return to the beach to breed where they hatched • Green turtles – lay eggs two or three times a season in every three years. • Juveniles – low survival rate – predation and natural mortality Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  33. Protection of green turtles • Breeding site at Sham Wan – South of Lamma island • 12 times between July – November, 1998. • 4 females may possible involved. • Designated as restricted area from 1/6 – 31/10. • AFCD – patrol the breach – remove the eggs and incubated artificially and release the hatching to the sea Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  34. Horseshoe crabs Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  35. Horseshoe crabs • Tachypleus tridentatus, T. gigas and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda • Living fossils • Distribute in the western waters of Hong Kong – mudflats • Summer – adults migrate to the mudflats to breed and lay eggs Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  36. Threats to horseshoe crabs • Coastal development – destruction of nursery grounds • Overfishing • Pollution of their breeding beaches Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  37. Pak Nai – be include in marine parks or marine reserve? • Villager of Pak Nai reported >100 horseshoe crabs invade the mud flat of Deep Bay in summer in the past. • Today – horseshoe crabs are very rare in HK. • Pak Nai – Construction of two large bridges to link with China Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  38. Finless porpoise Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  39. Distribution in Hong Kong Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  40. Threats • Pollution – high DDT and PCB in tissues • Vehicle collision • Ghost nets – trapped and dead Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  41. Conservation • Protected in Wild Animals Protection Ordinance • Include more areas as marine parks in south west Lantau and South Lamma • CITES – highest protection • Enhance disposal system – upgrade of marine water quality Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  42. Artificial reefs: • Artificial submerged structure to provide a variety of habitats of fish to aggregate. • It also provide surface for fouling organisms to settler to enhance the biodiversity of the habitats. • Aims to enhance fishery resources and inhibit trawling Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  43. Types of AR – vessels Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  44. Custom – build structure Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  45. 3 layered pyramid Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  46. Pier pilings Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  47. Concrete structures Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  48. Steel structures Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

  49. Locations of AR deployments Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

  50. Are AR useful? • The ‘production theory’ and the ‘Attraction theory’ • AR will enhance fishery resources if there is a limitation in habitats – insufficient habitats for newly recruited fish to settle. • AR will not enhance fishery if Recruitment is limited – too few recruits to colonize the habitats – surplus of habitat. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations