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DNA and Transcription Tutorial

DNA and Transcription Tutorial

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DNA and Transcription Tutorial

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  1. DNA and Transcription Tutorial Place your keyboard aside. Only use the mouse.

  2. Genes and DNA DNA can be divided into segments called genes. It is estimated that human DNA is composed of ~25,000 genes among its 46 total chromosomes. Quick Review. What is the monomer of a protein? monosaccharide nucleotides amino acid fatty acid

  3. back Genes Correct. Amino acids link to create proteins. Genes (small sections of DNA) are blueprints to make proteins for use throughout the body. Genes are found inside the nucleus of cells, but proteins are created outside of the nucleus. Quick review. Which organelle creates proteins? mitochondria chloroplast lysosome ribosome

  4. back Meet Melissa Yes! Ribosomes make proteins. Melissa is an architect and has designed a new high-rise apartment complex. The construction blueprint holds the information needed to create the high-rise apartment complex. A gene is like the construction blueprints. The gene holds the information needed to make a protein. Quick Review. Which cells contain the diploid chromosome number? Nerve cells Egg cells Sperm cells All cells

  5. back Transcription Correct! Let’s move on though… The DNA undergoes a process called transcription. Transcription is the process where the DNA code of a gene is used to make a molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA). Examine the picture. The red letters are DNA nucleotides. The green letters are mRNA being created. Notice how mRNA nucleotides are attaching to the DNA sequence. Quick review: Where is DNA stored? Cytoplasm Vesicle Nucleus Vacuole

  6. back Transcription (continued) Yes, the nucleus stores DNA. Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. T A C A G G T A G C C T T A Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  7. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA polymerase A G C C T T A Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  8. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA polymerase G C C T T A A Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  9. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA polymerase G C C T A A T Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  10. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA polymerase C C T A A G T Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  11. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA polymerase C C A A G T T Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  12. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA polymerase C A A G C T T Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  13. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA polymerase A A G C C T T Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  14. back Transcription (continued) Now that the DNA has been separated, free-floating mRNA nucleotides bond to the now open DNA nucleotides. T A C A G G T RNA polymerase A G C C T T A

  15. back Transcription Rules Now that the DNA has been separated, free-floating mRNA nucleotides bond to the now open DNA nucleotides. When performing transcription, remember the table below.

  16. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which mRNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A A U Click one C G A G C C T T A

  17. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A U A U Click one C G A G C C T T A

  18. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A U G A U Click one C G A G C C T T A

  19. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A U G U A U Click one C G A G C C T T A

  20. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A U G U C A U Click one C G A G C C T T A

  21. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A U G U C C A U Click one C G A G C C T T A

  22. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A U G U C C A A U Click one C G A G C C T T A

  23. back Predicting Transcription Now that the mRNA is complete, it will detach from the DNA… Exit the nucleus… And then hook up with a ribosome. T A C A G G T A U G U C C A A G C C T T A

  24. back Predicting Transcription Now that the mRNA is complete, it will detach from the DNA… Exit the nucleus… And then hook up with a ribosome. T A C A G G T A U G U C C A A G C C T T A

  25. back Fate of the DNA? Once the mRNA breaks away, the DNA will recombine. T A C A G G T A G C C T T A

  26. back Fate of the DNA? Once the mRNA breaks away, the DNA will recombine. T A C A G G T A G C C T T A

  27. back The final stage. Remember Melissa? Her blueprint for the apartment complex needs to be copied and then taken to the construction site. In this analogy, Melissa would fax the blueprints over to the construction site. The fax would be the mRNA. The construction site is the ribosome. Now that a copy of the blueprint has arrived, the construction team can begin to build the apartment complex. In a cell, now that the mRNA has arrived, the ribosome has the instructions to begin to make a protein.

  28. back The final stage. mRNA makes a copy of the DNA… the mRNA exits the nucleus… the mRNA links up with a ribosome. A U G U C C A ribosome Once at the ribosome, the process called translation will begin. Translation is the process where a ribosome builds a protein. The details of translation will be discussed another day. For now, let’s review.

  29. back Final Review #1 What will eventually be created by the DNA code of a gene? ribosome protein nucleolus

  30. Ribosomes create proteins.

  31. The nucleolus makes ribosomes.

  32. back Final Review #2 Correct! Now try this one… RNA polymerase separates DNA at the start of which process? transcription translation replication

  33. Translation is the process which creates proteins.

  34. Replication is the process which copies DNA.

  35. back Final Review #3 Correct. Now try this one… RNA polymerase is a type of which organic molecule? Proteins/ enzyme Nucleic acid carbohydrate lipid

  36. Review the table.

  37. back Final Review #4 Correct! Now try this one… Which shows the process of transcription done properly? Key Black = DNA Red = mRNA

  38. Remember, the transcription table?

  39. back Final Review #5 Correct. Now try this one… After exiting the nucleus, where will the finished mRNA travel? mitochondria ribosome nucleolus

  40. mRNA does not travel to the mitochondria.

  41. The nucleolus is inside the nucleus. This can’t be the answer.

  42. back Final Review #6 Correct…now try this last one… Once arriving at the ribosome, which process will begin next? replication transcription translation

  43. Replication makes a copy of DNA. It takes place inside the nucleus.

  44. Transcription creates mRNA from DNA. It takes place inside the nucleus.

  45. Good job…I hope this tutorial was helpful. This will be posted on my website for you to review at any time. Turn in your handout. Feel free to start over if you would like to do some review.

  46. Monosaccharides link to create a carbohydrate.

  47. Fatty acids link to create a lipid.

  48. Nucleotides link to create a nucleic acid.

  49. Mitochondria creates ATP energy.

  50. Lysosomes destroy microorganisms.