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Deep Blue Architecture Murthy Ganapathibhotla Agenda Introduction Overview of Deep Blue Architecture Conclusion INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION What is Deep Blue ? What is a Chess Computer ? How are Moves Computed ? History of Deep Blue. Introduction

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deep blue architecture

Deep Blue Architecture

Murthy Ganapathibhotla

  • Introduction
  • Overview of Deep Blue Architecture
  • Conclusion
  • What is Deep Blue ?
  • What is a Chess Computer ?
  • How are Moves Computed ?
  • History of Deep Blue.

What is Deep Blue ?

Deep Blue was IBM’s Chess Playing


It was the First Computer System to win

Against the world chess champion

Garry Kasparov.


What is a Chess Computer ?


What is a Chess Computer ?

A Computer that plays Chess !


What does a chess computer have to do

in order to defeat the world champion !


If we take a closer look at the way chess is played…

Each player has 16 pieces of chess coins to play with and 20 possible moves.

  • Lets say White begins the game.

It has 20 possible moves.

The same options are there even for a

Black player.

20 possible moves.


Total Number of Moves For White = 20

Moves for Pawns = 8 + 8 = 16

( one step) ( 2 steps)

Moves for Knights = 2 + 2 = 4

Total = 20


Level 1 : 20 possible moves for white.

Level 2 : 20 * 20 = 400 possible moves for black, depending on what white does.

Level 3 : 400 * 20 = 8,000 for white.

Level 4 : 8,000 * 20 = 160,000 for black…...

For all possible Chess Board Positions

You need to Evaluate 10 ^ 120 possible moves!


What will a Chess Computer do ?

  • Evaluates 5 or 10 or 20 moves ahead in advance.
  • The depth of the tree it can generate depends on the speed of the computer
  • Once it generates the tree it needs to evaluate the positions using some evaluation function .

So The Faster Your Computer generates the Moves,

The Better would be the Performance !

history of deep blue
History Of Deep Blue
  • Started as “Chip Test” at

Carneige Mellon University by Feng-Hsiung Hsu.

Then It Became “Deep Thought”


Finally “Deep Blue”.

deep blue architecture20
Deep Blue Architecture
  • Overview
  • Chess Chip
  • Chess Chip Evaluation Functions
  • RS /6000 Processor
  • Software Issues
  • Based on IBM RS/6000 SP Super Computer.
  • Contains 30 IBM RS/6000 Processors connected through a high speed switching network.
  • Each processor in the system controls upto 16 chess chips
  • So, Deep Blue had 480 chess chips !
chess chip23
Chess Chip
  • Move Generator : Generates next possible move.
  • Position Evaluator : Evaluates a leaf position.
  • Single Move : Takes

40,000 General purpose instructions

At 2 to 2.5 million chess positions per second , one chess chip is equivalent to 100 billion instructions per second

Super Computer !

chess chip evaluation functions
Chess Chip Evaluation Functions
  • Piece Placement Evaluation Each piece on Every Square
  • End Game Evaluation

Counts of Various Pieces on the Chess board.

  • Slow Evaluation

It computes various concepts such as

King safety…

rs 6000 processor
RS / 6000 Processor
  • Stands for RISC System / 6000
  • Belongs to the S family --

IBM Symmetric Multiprocessor Family

  • Supports 32 bit and 64 bit applications.
  • Gives High End Commercial Performance.
rack packaging
Rack Packaging

2 Enclosures :

  • Central Electronics Complex

- Processor Cards

- Memory Controller

- Memory Cards

- Power Supplies and Cooling Systems.

  • A Rack for 4 I/O drawers - One for primary SCSI drawer and room for other I/O expansion.
processor card
Processor Card
  • 6 Processors per card.
  • Runs at 455 MHz.
  • Separate 128 KB internal L1 Cache for instructions and data.
  • L2 Cache Controller and 4 way set associative 8 MB L2.
  • 5 Pipeline Execution Units :

Branch, Load/Store, Fixed Point, Complex Fixed Point and Floating Point.

system bus
System Bus
  • System bus uses 128 bit data path and

Separate 64 bit address path

  • Address, Data , Control Parity Checked
  • Operates in true Split Transaction mode
  • Base Configuration includes 2 GB SD RAM.
  • Max Configuration is 64 GB.
  • Accommodates up to 16 Memory Cards
  • Memory Cards are used in Sets of four called Quads.
  • SDRAM cards directly attached to the memory cards.
remote i o connections
Remote I/O Connections
  • The I/O Subsystem is connected to the RIO Chip Interface by means of System buses.
  • Four RI/O connections are connected to a single Hub chip.
  • Offers Buffering as well !
i o drawer
I/O Drawer
  • Cooling effect is provided by means of Fans.
  • Primary I/O Drawer Contains

12 hot plug DASD bays, one available media bay, one floppy disk drive, one CD ROM,

One mouse port, two serial ports and a parallel port.

The I/O sub system is expandable

By attaching 4 I/O Drawers to a single CEC.

operating system
Operating System
  • IBM AIX Operating System.
  • Uses Message Passing method of parallelization.
  • Whole program code is written in C !
  • Algorithm used is the minimum window alpha-beta search algorithm.
search strategy
Search Strategy
  • Search through all possible moves

Until you find the best possible move !

  • Make sure that when you lose a piece, you lose it optimally, i.e. let the penalty be just adequate without hurting much.
what deep blue did
What Deep Blue did ?
  • Searched 40 billion positions for each move !
  • Search was distributed among
  • IBM RS/6000 Network
  • Micro channel bus inside workstation node.
brief description
Brief Description
  • Take for example,

A 12 ply search ( ply = Move)

  • The master node among the 30 nodes will evaluate the first four plies in software. Now , number of positions increases about a 1000 times.
brief description41
Brief Description
  • All the 30 processors (including master)

Will evaluate the next four plies in software.

Now the number of positions increases about a 1000 times

  • Now the remaining 4 plies are taken care by the Chess Chips.
brief description42
Brief Description
  • Therefore,

Software is responsible for 1 % of the moves

And evaluating 2/3rd the depth of the tree.

“ Behind every Great Innovation, there is a meticulous human brain ”.

Murray Campbell

Feng-hsiung Hsu

kasporov vs deep blue match
Kasporov vs Deep Blue Match

The various moves of this match can be watched at this web site

a philosophical statement
A Philosophical Statement
  • Deep Blue entirely used Brute Force approach --- Can It Match the thinking process of a Human Brain ?
  • During the match, it seems the engineers have given Human input !
  • So , shall we wait for a Re Match ?
final word
Final Word
  • Lets see whether the honor of the human race will be defended during a rematch in the future !
  • Wikipedia

How Stuff Works

  • The RS/6000 Enterprise Server Model S80 Technology and Architecture

(Technical White paper from IBM)

  • IBM Research

any questions51
Any Questions ?

Thank You !