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Chapter 8. Articulations. Objectives. Contrast the major categories of joints, and explain the relationship between structures and functions for each category Describe the basic structure of a synovial joint, and describe common synovial joint accessory structures and their functions

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Chapter 8

Articulations

objectives
Objectives
  • Contrast the major categories of joints, and explain the relationship between structures and functions for each category
  • Describe the basic structure of a synovial joint, and describe common synovial joint accessory structures and their functions
  • Describe how the anatomical and functional properties of synovial joints permit dynamic movements of the skeleton
  • Describe the structure and function of the shoulder joint and the knee joint
  • Describe the effects of aging on articulations, and discuss the most common age-related clinical problems for articulations
articulations
Articulations

- also referred to as joints

- locations of two bones interconnecting

- 230 joints in the human body

- determines the type and amount of movement

- vary in structure and function

- due to a comprise between the need for strength and mobility

ex. intervertebral articulations: very strong but relatively immobile

- categorized according to:

- range of motion (ROM)

- anatomical organization (type of tissue at joint)

- more common

rom classifications of joints
ROM Classifications of Joints
  • Synarthrosis
  • Amphiarthrosis
  • Diarthrosis
anatomical organization of joint
Anatomical Organization of Joint
  • Bony
  • Fibrous
  • Cartilaginous
  • Synovial
synarthroses
Synarthroses

- immovable joints

- bones in very close contact or interlocked

- extremely strong joints

  • four major types
    • Sutures
    • Gomphosis
    • Synchondrosis
    • Synostosis
synarthroses cont
Synarthroses Cont.

Sutures

- edges interlocked; bound together by connective tissue

ex. bones of the skull

synarthroses cont8
Synarthroses Cont.
  • Gomphosis

- binds teeth to bony sockets in the maxilla and mandible

- fibrous connection between a tooth and its socket is a periodontal ligament

ex. between the teeth and jaws

synarthroses cont9
Synarthroses Cont
  • Synchondrosis

- ridged, cartilaginous bridge between two articulating bones

ex. epiphyseal cartilage

1st pair of vertebrosternal ribs and sternum

synarthroses cont10
Synarthroses Cont.
  • Synostosis

- immoveable joint

- created when two bones fuse and boundary disappears

ex: frontal bone

epiphyseal lines of mature long bones

amphiarthroses
Amphiarthroses
  • allow more ROM than synarthroses
  • stronger than diarthroses
  • connected by collagen fibers or cartilage
  • two major types
    • Syndesmosis
    • Symphysis
amphiarthroses cont
Amphiarthroses Cont.
  • Syndesmosis

- band or ligament connect bones

ex: distal tibiofibula joint

ampthiarthroses
Ampthiarthroses
  • Symphysis

- wedge or pad of fibrous cartilage separates bones

ex. pubic symphysis

diarthroses
Diarthroses
  • allow a wide ROM
  • typically located at the ends of long bones
    • Synovial
      • surrounded by a fibrous articular capsule with synovial membrane

ex. knee joint

components of synovial joints
Components of Synovial Joints
  • Articular Cartilages
  • Synovial Fluid
  • Accessory Structures
components of synovial joints16
Components of Synovial Joints
  • Articular Cartilages

- resemble hyaline cartilages in other areas of the body

- matrix contains more water, no perichondrium (sheath

- surfaces are slick and smooth (reduces friction)

- do not touch, separated by a thin film of synovial fluid

- if damaged matrix breaks down changing surface to rough feltwork of bristly collagen fibers

  • Synovial Fluid

- resembles interstitial fluid, clear viscous solution

- less than 3 mL even in large joints

- 3 primary functions

- lubrication

- nutrient distribution

- shock absorption

components of synovial joints17
Components of Synovial Joints
  • Accessory Structures
    • Cartilages and Fat Pads

- meniscus: a crescent pad of fibrous cartilage situated between opposing bones within a synovial joint

- subdivide a synovial cavity

- channel the flow of synovial fluid

- allow for variations in shape of articular surfaces

- fat pads: localized masses of adipose tissue covered by a layer of synovial membrane

- protect articular cartilage

- act as packaging material by filling spaces as

cavity changes

components of synovial joints cont
Components of Synovial Joints Cont.
  • Ligaments

- intrinsic: localized thickenings of the joint capsule

- extrinsic: separate from joint capsule

- support, strengthen, and reinforce synovial joints

- can become sprained with excesses stretching; damaging collagen fibers

  • Tendons

- not part of the articulation, pass across or around joint

- may limit ROM

- provide mechanical support

components of synovial joints cont19
Components of Synovial Joints Cont.
  • Bursae

- small fluid filled pockets in connective tissue

- contain synovial fluid lined with membrane

- can be connected or separate from joint cavity

- form where tendons/ligaments rub against tissues

- reduce friction

- act as shock absorbers

- if develop in abnormal locations or conditions called adventitious

factors that stabilze synovial joints
Factors that Stabilze Synovial Joints

- collagen fibers of the joint capsule and any accessory, extracapsular, or intracapsular ligament

- shapes of the articulating surfaces and menisci, which may prevent movement in specific directions

ex. hip joint; (head of femur projects into acetabulum)

- presence of other bones, skeletal muscles, or fat pads around the joint

ex. elbow

- tension in tendons attached to the articulating bones

injuries to joints
Injuries to Joints
  • Dislocation or luxation

- joint experiences extreme stress, articular surfaces ar forced out of position

- can damage cartilage, tear ligaments, or distort capsule

- very painful

  • Subluxation

- partial dislocation

types of synovial joints
Types of Synovial Joints
  • Gliding (planar)
  • Hinge
  • Pivot
  • Ellipsoid (condylar)
  • Saddle (sellaris)
  • Ball-and-socket
types of synovial joints24
Types of Synovial Joints
  • Ellipsoid (condylar)

- oval articular surface nestles into an elliptical cavity of another bone

- biaxial; along or across the length of the oval

ex. radiocarpal joint, metacarpophalangeal joints 2-5, metatarsophalangeal joints

  • Saddle(sellaris)

- each articular surface is concave along one axis and convex along the other

- biaxial, permits angular motion, and circumduction

- no rotation

ex. 1st carpometacarpal joint (trapezium/pollex)

types of synovial joints25
Types of Synovial Joints
  • Gliding

- flattened or slightly curved

- flat articular surfaces glide across one another

- movement is minimal

ex. sacroiliac joint, intercarpal/tarsals, acromioclavicular and claviculosternal joints

  • Hinge

- convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another

- permit angular motion in a single plane

ex. elbow, knee, ankle, interphalangeal joints

types of synovial joints26
Types of Synovial Joints
  • Pivot

- cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within a ring formed of bone and ligament

- monoaxial rotation

ex. atlas/axis, proximal radioulnar joint

  • Ball-and-socket

- round head of one bone rests within a cup-shaped depression in another.

- all movements allowed

ex. shoulder, hip joint

describing dynamic motion
Describing Dynamic Motion
  • Linear Motion

- two lines of reference

- gliding forward to backward, side to side or diagonal

  • Angular Motion

- two lines of reference

- change in angle of bone

- circumduction

  • Rotation

- shaft of bone spins around its longitudinal axis

dynamic motion cont
Dynamic Motion Cont.
  • Monaxial

- movement permitted along only one axis

  • Biaxial

- movement permitted along two axis

  • Triaxial

- movement permitted in combination of angular and rotation

types of movement synovial joints
Types of Movement: Synovial Joints
  • Linear gliding

- two opposing surfaces slide past one another

- any direction

- movement is slight, rotation is generally prevented by capsule and ligaments

ex. between carpals/tarsals

between the clavicle and sternum

types of movement synovial joints31
Types of Movement: Synovial Joints
  • Angular Motion
    • Flexion & Extension

- flexion

- movement in the anterior-posterior plane - reducing the angle between bones

ex. head to chest

- extension

- movement in the anterior-posterior plane - increasing the angle

ex. all major joints in anatomical position

- past anatomical position called hyperextension

types of movement synovial joints32
Types of Movement: Synovial Joints
  • Abduction & Adduction

- abduction: movement away from the longitudinal axis in the frontal plane

ex. swinging upper limb to the side

- adduction: movement towards the body

ex. bringing heel of hand and finger towards body

  • Circumduction

- moving in a circular motion

ex. drawing a large circle on the chalkboard

types of movement synovial joints33
Types of Movement: Synovial Joints
  • Rotation

- Head:

- right or left

    • Limb
      • internal: anterior surface of the limb turns toward the long axis of the trunk
      • external: anterior surface of the limb turns away from the long axis of the trunk
      • pronation: turns the wrist and hand from palm facing front to palm facing back
      • supination: turns the wrist and hand to palm facing front (wrist in anatomical position)
special movements
Special Movements
  • apply to specific articulations or unusual types of movement
  • Inversion & Eversion

- inversion: twisting motion of the foot turning the sole of the foot inward

- eversion: twisting motion of the foot turning the sole of the foot outward

  • Dorsiflexion & Plantar Flexion

- dorsiflexion: flexion at the ankle joint and elevation of the sole

- plantar flexion: extends at the ankle joint and elevates the heel

special movements cont
Special Movements Cont.
  • Opposition

- movement of thumb towards the surface of the palm or the pads of the fingers

  • Lateral flexion

- vertebral column bends side to side

  • Protraction & Retraction

- protraction: moving a body part anteriorly in the horizontal plane

- retraction: moving a body part posteriorly in the horizontal plane

special movements cont36
Special Movements Cont.
  • Elevation and Depression

- elevation: structure moves in a superior direction

- depression: structure moves in a inferior direction

structural components of intervertebral articulations
Structural Components of Intervertebral Articulations
  • Intervertebral Discs

- pad of fibrous cartilage separating vertebrae

- each disc has a tough outer layer of fibrous cartilage called a anulus fibrous

- attach the disc to the bodies of adjacent vertebrae

- surrounds the nucleus pulposus, a soft, elastic, gelatinous core

- gives disc resiliency and enables it to absorb shock

- movement compresses and displaces it in the opposite direction

- account for about ¼ the length of column

- water content decreases with age causing injury and shortening

structural components of intervertebral articulations40
Structural Components of Intervertebral Articulations
  • Intervertebral Ligaments
    • anterior longitudinal ligament

- connects the anterior surfaces of adjacent bodies

    • posterior longitudinal ligament

- parallels the anterior longitudinal ligament and connect the posterior surfaces of adjacent vertebral bodies

    • Ligamentum flavum

- connects the laminae of adjacent vertebrae

    • Interspinous ligament

- connects the spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae

    • Supraspinous ligament

- interconnects the tips of the spinous processes from C7 to the sacrum

disc conditions
Disc Conditions
  • Slipped disc

- posterior longitudinal ligaments weaken (aging)

- compressed nucleus pulposus may distort the anulus fibrous

- forces it partially into the canal

  • Herniated disc

- nucleus pulposus breaks through the anulus fibrous

- may also protrude into canal

- sensory nerves are distorted, and the protuding mass can also compress the nerves passing through the adjacent intervertebral foramen

vertebral movements
Vertebral Movements
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Lateral flexion
  • Rotation
shoulder joint glenohumeral
Shoulder Joint / Glenohumeral
  • ball-and-socket joint
  • permits the greatest ROM of any joint
  • dislocated frequently
  • diarthrosis
  • formed by the articulation of the head of the humerus with the glenoid cavity of the scapula
  • 5 ligaments
    • glenohumeral
    • coracohumeral
    • coracoacromial
    • coracoclavicular
    • acromioclavicular (injured during shoulder separation)
elbow joint
Elbow Joint
  • hinge joint
    • between radius, ulna, humerus
    • two joints: humero-ulnar, humeroradial
  • extremely stable joint due to:
    • interlocking of bones
    • single thick articular capsule
    • strong ligaments

- radial collateral ligament

- annular ligament

- ulnar collateral ligament

hip joint
Hip Joint
  • ball and socket joint
  • diarthrosis
  • Five ligaments

- 3 broad ligaments reinforce the articular capsule

- Iliofemoral

- Pubofemoral

- Ischiofemoral

- 1 crosses the acetabular notch, filling in the gap

- transverse acetabular

- 1 attaches femoral head at fovea capitis to acetabulum

- ligament of the femoral head or ligamentum teres

knee joint
Knee Joint
  • hinge joint
  • contains three separate articulations
    • two between the femur and tibia (condyles)
    • one between the patella and patellar surface of the femur
  • articular capsule is thin, incomplete in some areas
  • medial/lateral menisci between femoral and tibial surfaces
  • 7 major ligaments stabilizing the knee
    • quadriceps tendon passes over the anterior surface
      • patella is located in this tendon
    • patellar ligament continues from patella along the center of knee attaching on tibia tuberosity
    • patella retinaculae continue along the each side of patella attaching on tibia
knee joint cont
Knee Joint Cont.
  • 2 popliteal ligaments extending between femur and the heads of the tibia and fibula on posterior surface
  • anterior cruciate ligament connects lateral wall of the intercondylar notch to the tibial plateau between the tibial eminences
  • posterior cruciate ligament connects medial femoral condyle to the posterior tibia
  • tibial collateral ligament (MCL) reinforces medial surface, extending from the medial femoral epicondyle to the tibia
  • fibular collateral ligament (LCL) reinforces lateral surface, extending from the lateral fermoral epicondyle to the head of the fibula