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Chapter 6 ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE : HIGH CONSUMER EFFORT. Chapter Overview. What are attitudes? Attitudes formation: cognition (thinking) Cognitive response model Theory of reasoned action (TORA) How to change attitudes: cognition (thinking) Attitude formation: affect (emotion)

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chapter overview
Chapter Overview
  • What are attitudes?
  • Attitudes formation: cognition (thinking)
    • Cognitive response model
    • Theory of reasoned action (TORA)
  • How to change attitudes: cognition (thinking)
  • Attitude formation: affect (emotion)
  • How to change attitudes: affect (emotion)
definition
Definition

Attitude: a relatively global and enduring evaluation of an object, issue, person, or action

what s the big deal about attitudes
What’s the Big Deal About Attitudes?
  • Attitudes……
    • Guide our thoughts (cognitive function)
    • Influence our feelings (affective function)
    • Affect our behavior (connative function)
how are attitudes formed through cognition
How are attitudes formed through cognition?
  • The Cognitive Response Model
    • thoughts/reactions we have in response to a message
  • Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA)
    • explains how, when and why attitudes predict behavior
cognitive response model
Cognitive Response Model
  • Counterarguments (CAs)
    • disagreement
  • Support arguments (SAs)
    • agreement
  • Source derogations (SDs)
    • attack the source
theory of reasoned action tora

Evaluation of

consequences

of an act (ei)

Belief about

consequences

of an act (bi)

Behavioral Intentions

Behavior

Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA)

Normative belief

(what do important

others think about

this act?) (NBj)

Motivation to

comply (desire to

please these important

others) (MCj)

Attitude toward

the act (Aact)

How much consumer

is actually influenced

by these others (SN)

tora example getting a tattoo
TORA Example: Getting a tattoo
  • B=get a tattoo
  • BI=intention to get a tattoo
  • Aact=your attitude toward getting a tattoo
  • SN=what influence others have on you
tora scales
TORA Scales
  • bi = the likelihood that this outcome will occur is (-3) very low to (+3) very high
  • ei = if this outcome occurs, it will be (-3) very bad to (+3) very good
  • NBj = this person thinks I should (-3) not do it to (+3) do it
  • MCj = how much do I care what this person thinks? (-3) don’t care at all to (+3) care very much
tora example a act
Beliefs

will hurt

will be cool

will be expensive

self-expression

bi

+3

+1

+2

+3

TORA Example: Aact
tora example a act12
Beliefs

will hurt

will be cool

will be expensive

self-expression

biei

+3 -3

+1 +2

+2 -2

+3 +3

TORA Example: Aact
tora example a act13
Beliefs

will hurt

will be cool

will be expensive

self-expression

bi ei Sum bi X ei

+3 X -3 = -9

+1 X +2 = 2

+2 X -2 = -4

+3 X +3 = + 9

Therefore, Aact = -2

TORA Example: Aact
tora example sn
Important Others

Parents

Sig. Other

Best Friend

MKT 171 Instructor

NBj

-3

-3

+2

+3

TORA Example: SN
tora example sn15
Important Others

Parents

Sig. Other

Best Friend

MKT 171 Instructor

NBj MCj

-3 -1

-3 +3

+2 +1

+3 0

TORA Example: SN
tora example sn16
Important Others

Parents

Sig. Other

Best Friend

MKT 171 Instructor

NBj MCj Sum NBj XMCj

-3 X -1 = +3

-3 X +3 = -9

+2 X +1 = +2

+3 X 0 = + 0

Therefore, SN = -4

TORA Example: SN
the bottom line
The Bottom Line

BI = Aact + SN

= -2 + -4

= -6

Decision: Don’t do it!

theory of reasoned action tora18

Evaluation of

consequences

of an act (ei)

Belief about

consequences

of an act (bi)

Behavioral Intentions

Behavior

Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA)

Normative belief

(what do important

others think about

this act?) (NBj)

Motivation to

comply (desire to

please these important

others) (MCj)

Attitude toward

the act (Aact)

How much consumer

is actually influenced

by these others (SN)

attitude change strategies
Attitude Change Strategies
  • Change beliefs (bi)
  • Change evaluations (ei)
  • Add a new belief (biei)
  • Target normative beliefs
cognitively based attitude change issues
Cognitively-Based Attitude Change Issues
  • Communication Source
    • spokesperson credibility
    • company reputation
  • Message factors
    • argument quality
    • one- vs. two-sided messages
    • comparative messages
how are attitudes formed through affect emotion
How are attitudes formed through affect (emotion)?
  • Affective involvement
  • Affective reactions
affectively based attitude change issues
Affectively-Based Attitude Change Issues
  • Communication Source
    • Attractiveness
  • Message Factors
    • Emotional appeals
    • Fear appeals
chapter 6 review
Chapter 6 Review
  • Definition of attitudes
  • Attitude Formation & Change (cognitive)
    • Cognitive Response Model
    • TORA
    • Communication Source & Message Content
  • Attitude Formation & Change (affect)