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Chapter 16 The Union Reconstructed. The American People , 6 th ed. The Bittersweet Aftermath of War. The United States in 1865. At the end of the war, Lincoln’s official position was that the South had never left the Union

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chapter 16 the union reconstructed

Chapter 16The Union Reconstructed

The American People, 6th ed.

the united states in 1865
The United States in 1865
  • At the end of the war, Lincoln’s official position was that the South had never left the Union
  • Lincoln’s opponents argued that by declaring war, the Confederacy had broken their Constitutional ties and reverted to a territory status
  • The North was stronger than ever, the South lay in ruins
hopes among the freedpeople
Hopes Among the Freedpeople
  • Blacks tested their new freedom gradually
  • Most freed slaves made education a priority
  • Many left their plantations in search of a family member who had been sold
  • The primary goal for these freedpeople was to secure jobs and land; they expected a new economic order and some compensation for their years in slavery
the white south s fearful response
The White South’s Fearful Response
  • The dominant emotion in the Southern post-war white community was fear of newly freed slaves; of rape and revenge
  • Almost all societal norms in the South had been reversed as a result of losing the war
  • Southern legislatures passed “Black Codes” the first year after the war to secure white dominance
the thirteenth amendment
The Thirteenth Amendment
  • Abolished slavery and ratification was the first requirement for Southern states to rejoin the Union
  • Renouncing succession, acknowledging Confederate debts, and electing new state officials and members of Congress were other requirements.
the fourteenth amendment
The Fourteenth Amendment
  • Promised perpetual protection of the civil rights of black Americans by legally defining them as citizens
  • Granted suffrage to black males in the South
  • Denounced by President Johnson
acts of reconstruction
Acts of Reconstruction
  • The southern states were divided into military districts for federal administration
  • Congress redefined the qualifications for readmission as a state: blacks must be included in selecting representation to create new state constitutions
  • The Tenure of Office Act restricted presidential appointment powers in light of Johnson’s aggressive racism and determination to foil any reconstruction process; he became the first president to be impeached
the freedmen s bureau
The Freedmen’s Bureau
  • Officially called the Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees and Abandoned Lands
  • Issued emergency food rations, clothes and shelter for the homeless victims of the war
  • Tasked with an extensive education program for the freed slaves
  • Served as an early employment agency for African Americans
economic freedom
Economic Freedom
  • The failure of Congress to provide 40 acres and a mule for the freedmen resulted in a new economic dependency on their former masters
  • Land ownership consolidated into huge holdings and concentrated on one cash crop, usually cotton
  • African American signed work contracts with white landowners to toil under the lash as if slavery still existed