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Chapter 16 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 16

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  1. Chapter 16 Salads and Dressings

  2. Objectives • Recognize the different purposes salads serve on a menu

  3. Salads on the Menu • Purposes salads serve on the menu • Appetizer salads • Main course salads • Salad bars

  4. Traditionally, appetizer salads served as a light and refreshing lead-in to the main course quick and easy way to satisfy diners while entrées are being prepared Appetizer Salads

  5. Chefs create lighter entrées by pairing chicken, seafood, or meat with salad greens May combine hot and cold elements on same plate Main Course Salads

  6. Salad Bars • Common in American casual dining and fast-food restaurants • Diners enjoy the variety, choice, and ability to create custom salads • The use of low cost ingredients and minimal labor costs are appealing to restaurant operators

  7. A successful salad bar offers a large variety of attractively displayed ingredients is designed for easy access maintains food at proper temperatures Salad Bars

  8. Objectives • Classify the different types of salads

  9. Types of Salads • Three types of salads include • simple salads • composed or plated salads • bound and marinated salads

  10. A simple salad should include a variety of flavors, colors, and textures Simple Salads

  11. When dressing a simple salad, any type of dressing can be used dress the salad just before serving serve dressing on the side Simple Salads

  12. Composed or Plated Salads • Composed salads are popular main course menu items • Four parts of a composed salad include • base • body • dressing • garnish

  13. Composed or Plated Salads • Base • Lettuce leaves or a bed of cut greens • Acts as backdrop for other ingredients • Body • Main ingredient of salad • Could be greens, a marinated or bound salad, meat, fish, or poultry

  14. Composed or Plated Salads • Dressing • Compatible with other ingredients • Adds moisture and flavor • Garnish • Adds color and texture to finished presentation

  15. Chefs use combinations of various cooked foods to create bound salads and marinated salads These salads provide an opportunity to use up leftover foods creatively Bound and Marinated Salads

  16. Objectives • Recognize common salad greens

  17. Iceberg Lettuce Most popular variety in U.S. Long shelf life Crisp leaves, round shape, tightly packed head Mild, sweet, refreshing flavor Common Salad Greens

  18. Romaine Lettuce (Cos) Crisp ribs surrounded by tender leaves Elongated head with round-tipped leaves Common Salad Greens

  19. Escarole (Broad Leaf Endive) Loose, relatively crisp head; flat leaves with curly tips Slightly bitter flavor Common Salad Greens

  20. Curly Endive (Curly Chicory) Crisp ribs; narrow leaves with curly edge Bitter flavor; provides contrasting flavor and texture in lettuce mixtures Common Salad Greens

  21. Belgian Endive (Witloof Chicory) Tightly packed, elongated head with pointed tip Bitter flavor with slight sweetness Common Salad Greens

  22. Leaf Lettuce (Green Leaf Lettuce) Used in salads or as liner for plates and platters Mild flavor Common Salad Greens

  23. Red Leaf Lettuce (Red-Tipped Lettuce) Same texture and flavor as green leaf lettuce Often included in salad mixes for contrasting color Common Salad Greens

  24. Boston Lettuce (Butterhead) Soft green cup-shaped leaves Loose head with creamy-colored inner leaves Popular as salad base and in mixed salads Common Salad Greens

  25. Bibb Lettuce (Limestone Lettuce) Developed in Kentucky Similar color and texture to Boston lettuce, but smaller head One head is often served as single portion Common Salad Greens

  26. Spinach Smaller, tender leaves are best for salads Purchased in bunches or cello pack, packaged in plastic bags Remove fibrous stems and wash several times to remove dirt and grit Common Salad Greens

  27. Watercress Classic plate garnish for red meats Remove thick stems before serving Peppery flavor Common Salad Greens

  28. Radicchio Italian variety of chicory Bitter flavor Small amounts added to mixed greens for contrasting color Common Salad Greens

  29. Mesclun Often purchased ready-to-use Attractive variety of textures, colors, and flavors Common Salad Greens

  30. Sprouts Grown from seeds or beans soaked in water Alfalfa, bean, radishes, and mustard are most popular types Grown in high moisture, high temperature environment conducive to bacterial growth Common Salad Greens

  31. Objectives • Explain various factors involved when buying lettuce

  32. Subject to great fluctuations in quality and price Usually packed 24 heads to a case Actual cost of the lettuce is affected by the amount of waste Buying Lettuce

  33. Buying Lettuce • Ready-to-Eat Greens • Greens are prewashed and precut • More expensive than other greens • No prep time and little or no waste for the operation • Must be rotated and used quickly

  34. Objectives • Execute the preparation of salad greens

  35. Preparing Salad Greens • Greens that are not ready-to-eat must be prepared before use • Steps for preparing salad greens include • cutting • washing • drying

  36. Trim and remove the core Trim any wilted or discolored leaves Remove thick fibrous stems from leafy greens Cut (or tear) into bite-sized pieces Cutting

  37. Washing • Cut greens are placed in a sink or large container filled with cold water • Greens should float freely

  38. Washing • Stir the greens to loosen dirt and sand, which sinks to the bottom • Remove greens from the water and drain

  39. To remove excess water from washed salad greens drain in a colander or perforated hotel pan use a salad spinner (best method) Drying

  40. Technique: Preparing Salad Greens • Remove any wilted outer leaves. • Cut away any rusted or discolored parts, especially the leaf tips. • Remove the core or stem of the salad green. • Cut the lettuce or greens into bite-sized pieces. • Wash greens by submerging them in cold water. • Drain in a salad spinner.

  41. Objectives • Compare and contrast the three salad dressings—simple vinaigrette, mayonnaise, and emulsified dressing

  42. Salad Dressings • Salad dressing should enhance the flavor of the salad • Three basic types of salad dressing include • simple vinaigrette • mayonnaise • emulsified dressing

  43. Simple Vinaigrettes • The secret to a good vinaigrette is balancing the fat, acid, and seasonings • Oil provides the palate with a supple mouthfeel and acts as flavor carrier • Vinegar “cuts” the fat, adds another taste sensation, and prevents the oil from coating the palate

  44. Simple Vinaigrettes • To achieve the desired balance, a 3:1 ratio of oil to vinegar is often used • When working with a stronger vinegar, most chefs change the ratio to 4 or 5:1 • Because vinegar and oil separate, simple vinaigrette must be stirred immediately before service

  45. Mayonnaise and Emulsified Dressings • Simple vinaigrette separates because it is a temporary emulsion • An emulsion can be stabilized with egg or egg yolks to prevent separation

  46. Mayonnaise and Emulsified Dressings • When making mayonnaise, the tiny drops of oil become suspended in the water from the vinegar and egg • Proteins from the egg yolk keep the oil and water from separating • Mayonnaise is often used as a base for dressings and cold sauces

  47. Preparation of mayonnaise and emulsified dressings can be done by hand, with an electric mixer, or in a food processor. Place egg yolks, mustard, and vinegar in a bowl and whip to combine them well. Technique: Preparing Mayonnaise

  48. Technique: Preparing Mayonnaise • While constantly whipping the yolk mixture, add the oil in a thin stream.

  49. Technique: Preparing Mayonnaise • Continue to whip and add oil until all the oil is incorporated.