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Chapter 13: Aggression. Social Psychology by Tom Gilovich, Dacher Keltner, and Richard Nisbett . Aggression . Hostile aggression - behavior intended to harm another, either physically or psychologically, and motivated by feelings of anger and hostility

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chapter 13 aggression

Chapter 13: Aggression

Social Psychology by Tom Gilovich, Dacher Keltner, and Richard Nisbett

aggression
Aggression

Hostile aggression - behavior intended to harm another, either physically or psychologically, and motivated by feelings of anger and hostility

Instrumental aggression - behavior intended to harm another in the service of motives other than pure hostility (for example, to attract attention, acquire wealth, and to advance political and ideological causes)

modern theory of aggression
Modern Theory of Aggression

Social Determinants

Personal Determinants

Frustration

Provocation

Exposure to aggressive models

Cues associated with aggression

Causes of discomfort/negative affect

High irritability

Beliefs about aggression

Proaggression values

Type A behavior pattern

Hostile attribution bias

Arousal

Affective

States

Aggressive

Cognitions

Aggression

personal determinants
Personal Determinants
  • Type A behavior pattern
  • Hostile attributional style
  • Narcissism (inflated self-esteem)
  • Gender (higher in males when not provoked)
    • males tend to use direct forms (push, shove, insult)
    • females tend to use indirect (gossip, spread rumors)

Next

personal determinants5
Personal Determinants
  • Biological
    • Instinct theory - innate (unlearned) behavior pattern
      • Freud- redirecting the “death instinct” (thanatos) to others
      • Lorenz- inherited “fighting instinct” developed through the course of evolution (strongest survive)
    • Neural Influences
    • Genetic Influences
    • Blood Chemistry
      • high testosterone linked to higher aggression and less helping
      • low levels of serotonin inhibit ability to restrain aggressive urges
social determinants
Social Determinants
  • frustration
    • elicits aggression esp. when cause is unjustified
  • direct provocation (physical or verbal)
  • exposure to media violence
    • primes aggressive thoughts; desensitizes viewers
  • heightened arousal(provocation, exercise)
    • arousal in one situation can persist and intensify reactions in another, unrelated situation
frustration aggression theory
Frustration-Aggression Theory

Direct

Outward

aggression

Instigation

to aggress

Indirect

Frustration

(Goal)

Inward aggression

(e.g., suicide)

Other additional responses

(e.g., withdrawal)

Back

bandura ross ross
Bandura, Ross, & Ross
  • Subjects were exposed to either aggressive or nonaggressive models
  • Nonaggressive model assembled tinker toys
  • Aggressive model hit Bobo doll
  • Subject then spent 20 mins alone in room with various toys including Bobo.
    • What did it look like?
measuring human aggression in the laboratory
Measuring Human Aggression in the Laboratory
  • Buss Technique (similar to Milgram’s)
    • Participants (“teacher”) told to shock a “learner” each time they made an error on a simple learning task

Note: teachers chose how strong the shocks were

  • Competitive Reaction Time task (Taylor et al.)
    • Participants compete with “opponent” on reaction-time trials. After losing a trial, they receive shock levels ranging in intensity from very mild to painful. After winning a trial, they pick shock level to administer to opponent
chermack berman taylor
Chermack, Berman, & Taylor
  • Subjects competed against “opponent” in reaction time game
  • After each trial, loser received a shock
  • 2 conditions
    • Low provocation - shocks stayed at setting #2
    • High provocation - shocks gradually increased from 2 to 9

Back

excitation transfer theory
Excitation Transfer Theory

Aggression

is increased

Arousal and

irritation

attributed to

delay at gate

Meeting your

future in-laws

Heightened

arousal

Residual

arousal

Frustration

(delay at gate)

Aggression is

not increased

Arousal and

irritation are

attributed

mainly to

“meeting the

parents”

Back

situational determinants
Situational Determinants
  • high temperatures
    • hotter years (and summers) increased rates of violent crimes, but not property or rape crimes
situational determinants13
Situational Determinants
  • alcohol
    • intoxicated participants behave more aggressively and respond to provocations more strongly
    • low aggressors became more aggressive when intoxicated, whereas high aggressors did not
controlling aggression
Controlling Aggression
  • Catharsis (“blowing off a little steam”)
    • does not reduce aggression
  • Punishment
    • must be prompt, strong, and justified
  • Exposure to nonaggressive models
    • place prosocial models in violent situations
controlling aggression con t
Controlling Aggression (con’t)
  • Cognitive interventions
    • apologizing can be effective
    • engage in activities that distract attention away from causes of anger
  • Teach social skills
    • better communication
  • Induce incompatible responses
    • humor
study smarter student website
Study Smarter: Student Website
  • http://www.wwnorton.com/socialpsych

Chapter Reviews

Diagnostic Quizzes

Vocabulary Flashcards

Apply It! Exercises