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aggression. definition. focus on harm not pain can cause pain caus e pain in order to help intent is crucial So…. Intentional, with aim to cause harm or pain with no benefit to target. Physical aggression. Different from most behaviors most can express

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focus on harm not pain

  • can cause pain cause pain in order to help
  • intent is crucial
  • So….
  • Intentional, with aim to cause harm or pain with no benefit to target
physical aggression
Physical aggression
  • Different from most behaviors
  • most can express
  • explain arousal, explain behavior
  • sex and aggression restricted
  • Cannot always express impulse
  • rules about expression
  • when, where, with whom
  • penalties for breaking rules
  • but
  • healthy, normal, acceptable
  • Also restricted
  • but not normally acceptable
  • not healthy
  • not generally allowed
two questions
Two questions
  • What causes aggressive feelings?
  • what causes them to be expressed?
why the impulse
Why the impulse?
  • Evolution
  • yes, helpful but
  • for women as well as men
  • for almost all animals
  • Seems to be part of human nature
  • boys more than girls?
  • Physical vs. verbal
problems of studying
Problems of studying
  • Real-world studies
  • laboratory problems
    • cannot allow real aggression
    • cannot use strong stimuli
    • physical aggression rare
    • hard to generalize
frustration aggression
  • Frustration - anger, aggressive feelings
  • less or none when justified
  • does not always produce actual aggression
  • Leonard Berkowitz
  • guns serve as cues - maybe
  • Situation elicits or discourages - yes
guns and murder
Guns and murder
  • Yes, a correlation
  • not necessarily due to cue
  • mostly ease of killing
learning aggression
Learning aggression
  • Yes, affected by rewards/punishments
  • also by imitation, social pressure, etc.
  • But….
abusive parent produces aggressive child
abusive parent produces aggressive child?
  • most not also abusive
  • many abusive parents were not abused
  • so connection is not clear
  • link is pretty weak and best
father absent families
Father-absent families
  • More juveniles in trouble with the law
  • yet fathers are the violent ones (usually)
  • so might expect more aggression
  • main factor is poverty and lack of attention
conclusion what matters
Conclusion - what matters
  • Being physically abused minor factor
  • quality of family life
  • attachment, attention
  • parenting in general
corporal punishment con
Corporal punishment??? - con
  • Why hit kids and no one else?
  • Not effective - has reverse effect
  • makes angry
  • kids model and become aggressive
corporal punishment pro
Corporal punishment?? - pro
  • Parents in unique position
  • no evidence of bad outcomes
  • is effective in preventing behavior
  • parents are people also
  • Cultures differ in acceptance
  • how child perceives is crucial
  • may matter more when not accepted
sub culture
  • Extremely important
  • criminal, gangs, macho, etc.
  • Vs. education, cooperation, moral
  • by society or parts of society
but remember
But remember
  • Even in “bad” neighborhood
  • some are aggressive - some are not
  • even in “good”neighborhood
  • some are aggressive - some are not
  • Acting reduces feelings? Yes
  • mainly when against cause of anger
  • and this reduces aggression - probably
  • Watching reduces feelings - rarely
  • maybe when cause is the one being harmed
  • then it may reduce aggression
more porn but less violence
More porn but less violence
  • More explicit pornography
  • Violent sexual crimes declined
  • if porn causes violence,
    • why has it declined?
experimental research
Experimental research
  • Very difficult - weird situation
  • demand
  • equating the programs
  • one or two programs???
real world research
Real-world research
  • Magazines and rape - wrong!
  • Macho culture
  • most explicit not related
use by offenders
Use by offenders
  • Marshall - yes they use more
  • all others - no, either same or less
  • and may use to reduce urge
    • and prevent crime
Erotica almost always reduces aggression
  • no evidence of actual aggression
  • desensitization?? To porn yes...
  • Informed consent
  • what is the rationale
  • maybe just permission
  • debriefing removes it
tv violence and aggression
TV violence and aggression
  • Aggressive kids watch more TV violence
  • small correlation - .1 to .3
  • only 1% to 10% of variation
  • so a relatively minor factor
method not so easy
Method - not so easy
  • Measuring tv viewing
  • measuring aggressiveness
they are correlated

They are correlated

Must ask why?

  • Hard to measure aggression in lab
  • why is this program being shown?
    • Gives permission to be aggressive?
    • Endorses the program?
field studies
Field studies
  • Measure TV violence and aggression at time one
  • measure again later
  • look for effect
video games
Video games

yes – correlation

Is it causal?

Hard to study

Experiments unrealistic

explain the correlation
Explain the correlation
  • Personality - some are aggressive
  • they act aggressively and like violent media
  • same as with boys and girls
social explanation
Social explanation
  • Single parents, poor family
  • lack attention and other activities
  • they are less happy - more aggressive
  • they have less to do - watch more tv etc.
  • they are monitored less - more violent tv