Chapter 12 Drinking Responsibly:A Lifestyle Challenge on Campus
Objectives • Discuss the alcohol use patterns of college students and overall trends in consumption. • Explain the physiological and behavioral effects of alcohol, including blood alcohol concentration, absorption, metabolism, and the immediate and long-term effects of alcohol consumption. • Learn practical strategies for drinking responsibly and coping effectively with campus pressures to drink.
Objectives (cont.) Explain the symptoms and causes of alcoholism, its cost to society, and its effects on the family. Discuss the treatment of alcoholism, including the family’s role, varied treatment methods, and whether alcoholics can be cured.
Alcohol and College Students • Approximately 90 percent of college students consume alcohol. • One-third of college students are heavy drinkers. • Women’s alcohol consumption has risen. • College drinkers spend more on alcoholic beverages than on soft drinks and textbooks combined.
Activity Break: Pop Quiz • True or False • The majority of freshman drop out of college do so because of alcohol use? • TRUE
High-Risk Drinking and College Students • Binge drinking is heavy episodic alcohol consumption three times or more in a 2-week period. • On a single occasion, five drinks in a row for men, four drinks for women. Harvard School of Public Health, 2002 study • 44.4 percent of students were binge drinkers. • 22.8 percent were frequent bingers. • Frequent binge drinkers are 16 times more likely to miss class and 8 times more likely to get behind in their school work.
The Chemical Makeup of Alcohol • Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is the intoxicating substance. • Fermentation is the name of the process in which yeast organisms break down plant sugars, yielding ethanol and carbon dioxide. • Distillation involves alcohol vapors from the fermented mash are collected and mixed with water. • Proof is the measure of percentage of alcohol; the alcohol percentage is 50 percent of the given proof. • Thus, 100-proof vodka is 50 percent alcohol by volume.
Alcoholic Beverages and Their Alcohol Equivalencies Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Blood Alcohol Concentration • Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is the ratio of alcohol to total blood volume. • Despite differences among individuals, alcohol produces some general behavioral effects depending on the person’s BAC. • In learned behavioral tolerance, a person learns to modify behavior to appear sober despite a high BAC.
ABC News Video: Teen Drinking Test Discussion Questions • What are the ethical considerations involved with the ETG test? • What are the pitfalls to the ETG test as it works now? • Is the ETG test really a deterrent (remember, it’s effective up to 80 hours after drinking)? • Should there be consequences from a school for a positive test? Is notifying parents enough? | Teen Drinking Test
Approximate Blood Alcohol Concentration Based on Body Weight and Number of Drinks Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Absorption and Metabolism • Factors influencing the body’s absorption of alcohol • Alcohol concentration in beverage • Amount of alcohol consumed • Amount of food in stomach • Pylorospasm • Mood • Metabolism • Weight • Body mass index
Immediate Effects • The primary action of alcohol is to depress the central nervous system. • As a diuretic, alcohol results in fluid being drawn out of cerebrospinal fluid and leads to mitochondrial dehydration and headache. • Alcohol irritates the gastrointestinal system. • A hangover often develops the next morning. • Congeners are forms of alcohol that are metabolized slower than ethanol and are more toxic. • Alcohol’s interactions with other drugs can lead to alcohol poisoning.
Effects of Alcohol on the Body Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Alcohol Poisoning • Death from alcohol poisoning can be caused by central nervous system and respiratory depression or by inhalation of vomit or fluid into the lungs. • Signs of alcohol poisoning • Unable to be aroused • Weak, rapid pulse • Unusual or irregular breathing pattern • Cool, damp, pale, bluish skin • Mental confusion • Vomiting • Seizures
Women and Alcohol • Women have a different body fat composition than men. • Women have half the amount of aldehyde dehydrogenase, the enzyme that breaks down alcohol in the stomach. • If a woman and a man drink the same amount of alcohol, the woman will have a BAC that is 30 percent higher.
Long-Term Effects • Effects on the nervous system • Cardiovascular effects • Antithrombotic effect • Liver disease • Alcoholic hepatitis • Cirrhosis
Long-Term Effects (cont.) Cancer Irritant to gastrointestinal system Inflammation of the pancreas Absorption of calcium is blocked Interference with immunity
Normal Liver and Liver with Cirrhosis Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Alcohol and Pregnancy • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is associated with alcohol consumption during the first trimester, which may affect organ development; alcohol consumed during the last trimester may affect central nervous system development. • Fetal alcohol effects (FAE) occur in children with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure but with fewer of the full physical or behavioral symptoms of FAS.
Drinking and Driving • Approximately 39 percent of traffic fatalities in 2006 were alcohol related. • College Alcohol Study, 20% of nonbingers, 43% of occasional bingers, and 59% of frequent bingers reported driving while intoxicated • More than 31.4 percent of college students reported driving under the influence of alcohol.
Percentage of Fatally Injured Drivers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism • Alcohol abuse is drinking that interferes with work, school, or social and family relationships or entails any violation of the law. • Alcoholism is the condition that results when personal and health problems related to alcohol use are severe and stopping alcohol use results in withdrawal symptoms.
Identifying a Problem Drinker • Ninety-five percent of alcoholics live in some type of extended family unit and not on skid row. • Lifetime risk of alcoholism in the United States is • 10 percent for men. • 3 percent for women (the fastest growing population). • Recognizing and admitting the existence of an alcohol problem is often difficult.
Students: Alcohol and Prescription Drug Abuse • Six percent of college students meet the criteria for alcoholism. • Thirty-one percent of college students meet the criteria for alcohol abuse. • Young adults are at most risk for concurrent abuse of both alcohol and drugs. • Medical problems can result from combining alcohol and prescription drugs. • Alcohol poisoning • Unconsciousness • Respiratory depression • Death
ABC News Video: Spring Break Nightmare Discussion Questions • Is it up to the community (including parents, schools, police) to curb spring break parties, or is it up to the students to make better choices? • What programs should schools have in place to deal with the lure of spring break parties? What should parents do? • Why is it, do you think, that students participate in these types of parties? • What steps should you take to protect yourself in situations where there is a lot of drinking, drugs, and partying going on? | Spring Break Nightmare
The Causes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Biological and family factors Alcoholism is four to five times more common among children of alcoholics. Social and cultural factors Social pressure Family attitude toward drinking
Effects of Alcoholism on the Family • Children in alcoholic dysfunctional families generally assume at least one of the following roles: • Family hero • Scapegoat • Lost child • Mascot
Costs to Society • Half of all traffic accidents are attributable to alcohol. • In 1998, alcohol-related costs to society were more than $185 billion when health insurance, criminal justice costs, treatment costs, and lost productivity were factored in. • Alcoholism is directly or indirectly responsible for more than 25 percent of the nation’s medical costs and lost earnings. • Every underage drinker costs society an average of $4,680 a year.
Women and Alcoholism • The trend is for women, especially college-age women, to drink more heavily than previous years. • Women get addicted faster with less alcohol. • Women alcoholics have death rates 50 to 100 percent higher than male alcoholics. • Only 14 percent of women who need treatment get it.
Alcohol and Ethnic or Racial Differences • Native American populations • Alcoholism rates are two to three times higher than the national average. • African American populations • Lower rates of drinking than whites, but those who do are heavy drinkers • Latino populations • High rates of alcohol abuse and alcoholism • Asian American populations • Lower rates of drinking that whites
Treatment Programs • Group support treatment • Alcoholics Anonymous • Pharmacological treatments • Disulfiram (Antabuse) • Naltrexone • Acamprosate (Campral)
Recovery • The family’s role • Treatment programs • Private treatment facilities • Family therapy, individual therapy, and group therapy • Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) • Al-Anon • Alateen
Relapse • Approximately 60 percent of alcoholics relapse within the first 3 months of treatment. • A comprehensive approach is needed: one combining drug therapy, group support, family therapy, and personal counseling designed to improve living and coping skills is usually the most effective course of treatment.