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Balancing engines - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Balancing engines. For smoother engine operation & longevity. Forces multiply as engine RPM increase. Copyright 2003 Gary Lewis – Dave Capitolo. Balancing engines. First step in diagnosing engine vibration. Isolate engine mounts/insulators. Balancing engines. Weight groups for balancing.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Balancing engines

  • For smoother engine operation & longevity
  • Forces multiply as engine RPM increase

Copyright 2003 Gary Lewis – Dave Capitolo

slide2

Balancing engines

  • First step in diagnosing engine vibration
  • Isolate engine mounts/insulators
slide3

Balancing engines

  • Weight groups for balancing
  • Rotating weights
  • Housing bore end of rods
  • Rod journals
  • Rod bearings
  • Oil
  • Reciprocating weights
  • Pistons, pins, rings, locks
  • Pin end of rods
slide4

Balancing engines

  • Weighing connecting rods
  • Record rotating weight of rod
  • Record reciprocating weight of rod
slide5

Balancing engines

  • Weighing piston assemblies
  • Record weight of . . .
  • Piston
  • Pin
  • Ring set
  • Locks
slide6

Balancing engines

  • Balancing connecting rods
  • Equalize the housing bore end of the rods first
  • Equalize the pin end of the rods
slide7

Balancing engines

  • Balancing piston assemblies
  • Reduce piston assembly weights from . . .
  • Pin
  • Piston or . .
slide8

Balancing engines

  • Vibration forces in 4 cyl. in-line
  • Primary vibration
  • Up and down vibration
  • Counterweights used to cancel
  • Secondary vibration
  • Differences in acceleration rates
  • Balance shafts used to counteract
slide9

Balancing engines

  • In-line crankshaft design
  • Counterweights are equal in force to crank pins
    • (Primary vibration)
  • If rotating weights are the same, they cancel
  • each other in ‘in-line’ 6 cyl engines
slide10

Balancing engines

  • 4 cylinder in-line crankshaft design
  • Reciprocating forces do not completely cancel
  • Acceleration is greater as the piston passes
  • TDC and starts down
  • Balance shafts can counteract these forces
slide11

Balancing engines

  • 4 cylinder in-line unbalanced forces
  • Pistons reach max velocity at 70° to 75° ATDC
    • (When connecting rod is 90° to crankpin)
  • Peak acceleration is between TDC and max velocity
  • Force is acceleration times reciprocating weight
slide12

Balancing engines

  • 4 cylinder in-line crankshaft design (cont.)
  • Unbalanced forces are minimized by . . .
  • Reducing reciprocating weights
  • Shorter stroke
  • Longer connecting rods
slide13

Balancing engines

  • 6 cylinder in-line crankshaft design
  • If reciprocating forces are equal,
  • they cancel each other
slide14

Balancing engines

  • V-block crankshaft design
  • Counterweights are equal in force to . . .
  • Rotating weight at crankpins plus a
  • Percentage of the reciprocating weight
  • Percentage of reciprocating weight in counterweight
  • design, varies with the amount that the forces cancel
  • between cylinders
slide15

Balancing engines

  • V-block crankshaft design
  • V-6 engines have rocking couples
    • Greater in 90° V-blocks than 60°
  • Even firing V-6 engines
  • Reciprocating weights do not cancel
  • Counterweights do not fully compensate
slide16

Balancing engines

  • Externally balanced engines
  • Weights added to outside of crankshaft
  • Limited room for counterweights in crankcase
  • Can be converted to internal using heavy metal
slide17

Balancing engines

  • Balance specifications
  • A balanced engine has . . .
  • -Reciprocating forces that cancel
  • -Wobble that does not exceed oil clearance,
  • 6 grams or less at 1” radius for computerized balancers
slide18

Balancing engines

  • Balancing procedure
  • Record piston weights and lighten heavy pistons
    • to match lighter pistons
  • Equalize rotating weights
  • Equalize reciprocating weights
slide19

Balancing engines

  • Balancing procedure
  • Crankshafts are dynamically balanced in 2 planes
    • to eliminate wobble
  • Corrections are made to the end counterweights
slide20

Balancing engines

  • Balancing procedure
  • Dimensions needed:
  • Radius from center to counterweights
  • Distance between counterweights
  • Distance between counterweight and support
slide21

Balancing engines

  • Balancing procedure
  • Balancing equipment locates point of correction
  • Weight is either added to one side
  • or removed from the other
  • Amount varies with the radius
slide22

Balancing engines

  • Balancing procedure
  • In-line engines do not require bob weights
  • V-block engines use bob weights
slide23

Balancing engines

  • Balancing procedure
  • Bob weight calculations
slide24

Balancing engines

  • Flywheels and clutches
  • Add to flywheel and balancer to balanced crankshaft
  • Then add pressure plate
  • Mark assembly with punch
slide25

Balancing engines

  • Torque converter warning
  • Chrysler 360 with cast crankshafts
      • Externally balanced by adding weight to converter
  • If special tools are not available,
    • do not balance crankshaft
  • Mark assembly with punch
slide26

Balancing engines

  • Balancing with heavy metals (no, not Metallica)
  • Holes filled with Tungsten alloy
  • For external to internal change
  • Expensive for conventional balancing