7 television the most influential medium
Download
1 / 55

7. TELEVISION: THE MOST INFLUENTIAL MEDIUM - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 1036 Views
  • Updated On :

AL AKHAWAYN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES COMMUNICATIONS STUDIES 7. TELEVISION: THE MOST INFLUENTIAL MEDIUM Lecture by Prof. Dr. Mohammed Ibahrine based on DeFleur and Dennis’s Understanding Mass Communication Developing a Concise Definition

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '7. TELEVISION: THE MOST INFLUENTIAL MEDIUM' - albert


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
7 television the most influential medium l.jpg

AL AKHAWAYN UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES

COMMUNICATIONS STUDIES

7. TELEVISION: THE MOST INFLUENTIAL MEDIUM

Lecture by Prof. Dr. Mohammed Ibahrine

based on

DeFleur and Dennis’s Understanding Mass Communication


Developing a concise definition l.jpg
Developing a Concise Definition

  • Developing a Concise Definition

    • “Mass communication is a process in which professional communicators design and use media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously in order to arouse intended meanings in large, diverse, and selectively attending audiences in attempts to influence them in a variety of ways”


Structure of the lecture l.jpg
Structure of the Lecture

  • 1. The BIRTH OF TELEVISION

    • 1.1 DEVELOPING AN ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

    • 1.2 EARLY BROADCASTS

  • 2. THE PERIOD OF RADIO ADOPTION

    • 2.1 THE BIG FREEZE

    • 2.2 BECOMING A NATION TELEVISION VIEWERS

    • 2.3 THE COMING OF COLOR

    • 2.4 TELEVISION’S GOLDEN AGE


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • Television is a medium of enormous importance

  • Although radio still has larger audiences and greater reach worldwide,

  • No one doubts the preeminent role of television as a mass medium


Introduction5 l.jpg
Introduction

  • It is a major force in the media economy as a connection between audiences and advertisers as well as a system of content

  • Technology has always played a critical role in television’s development and its ability to challenge

  • In any consideration of television, technology is vitally important

  • “Television industries”


1 the birth of television l.jpg
1. THE BIRTH OF TELEVISION

  • The history of television goes back a lot further than many people might suppose

  • In 1884, a German experimenter, Paul Nipkow, developed a rotating disk with small holes arranged in a spiral pattern that had unusual properties

  • The Nipkow disk became the central technology for further experimentation on the transmission of images, both by wire and later by radio waves


Slide7 l.jpg
This schematic shows the circular paths traced by the holes that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)


1 the birth of television8 l.jpg
1. THE BIRTH OF TELEVISION that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)

  • PEASE USE WIKIPEDIA CLEVERLLY

  • We talk about this issue in the very next future


1 the birth of television9 l.jpg
1. THE BIRTH OF TELEVISION that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)

  • Early experiments on sending pictures by radio began in several countries just after World War I

  • The earliest attempts made use of a revolving "Nipkow disk;' a mechanical system that created a scanning effect when used with a beam of light

  • It was not until electronic scanning was developed that television became practical


1 the birth of television10 l.jpg
1. THE BIRTH OF TELEVISION that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)

  • The most remarkable of the inventors is Philo T. Farnsworth

  • As a child he had started reading about electricity

  • The first patent for an electronic television system was awarded to Philo T. Farnsworth, an obscure inventor who had worked out the basic design while still a high school student

  • With minimal funding he built a working model in a small apartment in Los Angeles

  • Vladimir Zworykin, of Westinghouse laboratories, also invented an electronic system

  • Court battles resulted but Farnsworth won his case and received a cash settlement


1 the birth of television11 l.jpg
1. THE BIRTH OF TELEVISION that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)

  • By 1932, a transmitter was installed in the Empire State Building in New York City

  • Regular transmissions began on a limited basis in 1936,with two broadcasts per week

  • A few hundred amateur enthusiasts who had built or purchased sets could receive the signals in the New York area

  • By early 1941, the medium was set to take off


1 the birth of television12 l.jpg
1. THE BIRTH OF TELEVISION that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)

  • By 1940, television was capable of becoming a mass medium for home use

  • However, when World War II began in 1941, the need for war production temporarily halted the development of the new medium

  • The period of rapid adoption of home receivers began just after the war


1 the birth of television13 l.jpg
1. THE BIRTH OF TELEVISION that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)

  • Between 1950 and 1960, nearly 90 percent of American households acquired TV set

  • This rapid adoption happened in spite of a freeze on the licensing and construction of new TV stations imposed by the FCC between 1948 and 1952


2 the period of rapid adoption l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • By 1946, the FCC had issued twenty-four new licenses for television transmitters

  • G.C

  • The manufacture and sale of home receivers began that same year

  • In 1947, a set with a picture about six by seven inches cost around $400

  • That was more than a month's wages for many blue-collar families

  • and the set did include the special antenna that had to be installed on the roof


2 the period of rapid adoption15 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • One establishment that could afford a set was the local tavern

  • By 1948, a television set was a central feature in almost every tavern in the country

  • Sports programs were the favorite, and big crowds would gather to watch the games

  • The local tavern was a significant element in demonstrating and popularizing the new medium

  • Even today, people watch sports programming in bars and taverns, where they enjoy a communal medium as they watch a game and discuss it with fellow patrons


2 the period of rapid adoption16 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • 2.1 THE BIG FREEZE

  • By the beginning of 1948, the FCC had issued approximately one hundred licenses

  • Some cities had two or even three stations, although most still had none

  • Soon problems developed like those that had troubled radio in the early years

  • The signals of one station sometimes interfered with those of another


2 the period of rapid adoption17 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • 2.1 THE BIG FREEZE

  • By the beginning of 1948, the FCC had issued approximately one hundred licenses

  • Beginning 1948 and extending through 1952, the commission ordered a freeze on the issuance of new licenses and construction permits

  • As a result, TV transmitters could not be built in many American communities until after the freeze was lifted


2 the period of rapid adoption18 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • 2.1 THE BIG FREEZE

  • When the freeze was lifted in 1952, television spread throughout the United States

  • Within a remarkably short time, it became so ubiquitous that most American families had a set

  • Social commentators began to speak of the "television generation" of Americans born after World War II who never knew a world without TV

  • The medium is presumed to have shaped their lives in significant ways


2 the period of rapid adoption19 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • 2.2 BECOMING A NATION OF TELEVISION VI EWERS

  • Figure 7.1 shows how rapidly the American public adopted television

  • In 1950, less 10 percent of American homes had a set

  • In 1960, only ten years later, nearly 90 percent had a receiver

  • By 1980, ownership of sets had virtually reached saturation level in American households

  • Today, it is very unusual to find a family without a television set, and most have more than one


2 2 b ecoming a nation of television vi ewers l.jpg
2.2 B that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)ECOMING A NATION OF TELEVISION VI EWERS


2 the period of rapid adoption21 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • 2.2 BECOMING A NATION OF TELEVISION VI EWERS

  • Another index of the popularity of television can be seen in terms of viewing time

  • The TV set has been in use during an ever-growing number of hours per day for almost decades

  • Today, it is becoming increasingly difficult to determine patterns of television viewing because TV sets can be used in so many Ways

  • One can watch regular broadcasting, signals from satellites, cable channels, and video cassettes; play video games; or be connected to the Internet


2 the period of rapid adoption22 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • 2.3 THE COMING OF THE COLOR

  • In 1953, the FCC approved a different system, which had been developed by RCA in 1946

  • Although it produced less-refined colors, it did allow existing black-and -white sets to receive color-transmitted programs


2 the period of rapid adoption23 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • 2.4 TELEVISION'S GOLDEN AGES

  • Two different periods can both be called the golden age of television:

    • 1. The first is the time when the medium was experiencing its most rapid period of growth roughly from 1952 to around 1960

    • 2. The second is a longer period, from about 1960 to around 1980, when network television had few competitors


2 the period of rapid adoption24 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • 2.4 TELEVISION'S GOLDEN AGES

  • The two decades between 1960 and 1980 also can be regarded a kind of economic golden age of television

  • It may not have been in a period of audience satisfaction in terms of classic programming

  • At the time the public showed many signs of frustration and dissatisfaction with the medium

  • The period was one of turmoil in American society, beset by such issues as civil rights, the Vietnam War and increasing crime and violence


2 the period of rapid adoption25 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • 2.4 TELEVISION'S GOLDEN AGES

  • Many blamed , TV for social ills, believing it to be a powerful medium that was eroding the moral standards and the stability of the nation

  • Such charges generated a great deal of interest in the effects of television

  • -> Research


2 the period of rapid adoption26 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • 2.4 TELEVISION'S GOLDEN AGES

  • During these decades, the medium was dominated by three major networks ABC, CBS, and NBC) with virtually no competition

  • Their profit margins were high from advertising revenue

  • They commanded the attention of virtually the entire viewing audience during prime time


2 the period of rapid adoption27 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • 2.4 TELEVISION'S GOLDEN AGES

  • A small proportion of American did view programs on educational stations and the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)

  • Network television was widely criticized for broadcasting too much violence and for keeping the intellectual level of its programs low

  • Programs presented during the period were often designed with the tastes of the lower middle class in mind

  • Violence and fantasy were persistent themes


2 the period of rapid adoption28 l.jpg
2. that may also be square for greater precision (WIKIPEDIA, 2007)THE PERIOD OF RAPID ADOPTION

  • 2.4 TELEVISION'S GOLDEN AGES

  • The majority of Americans loved that kind of TV content

  • Newton Minow (then Chairman of the FCC), said

  • “Network television was a

    • "vast wasteland”

  • of mindless comedy, unrealistic soap operas, staged wrestling, cartoons, sports, quiz shows, and shallow portrayals of family situations


  • Checklist for class today l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • During the last decade, Arab media has undergone enormous changes

    • The trends and patterns that characterize its modus operandi have been in constant flux, under pressure from both external and internal forces

    • In lurid headlines it has been hyped, vilified, and glamorized -- but rarely studied as an academic subject

    • This is unfortunate, because the lack of serious literature has obscured its rapid development, making it difficult for observers to investigate


    Checklist for class today30 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Ayish begins his theoretical chapter by dividing the analytical approaches to media into three paradigms,

      • the modernization paradigm

      • the dependency paradigm

      • the globalization paradigm

    • After reviewing the existing scholarly literature on the globalization paradigm, he argues that much of this literature is empirically flawed because it focuses

    • "more on globalized cultural actors … as well as globalized audiences"

    • and

    • "overlooks the rise of a new level of television flow and impact within numerous world regions"


    Checklist for class today31 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Moreover, Ayish designs his understanding of globalization to be applied in the subsequent empirical analyses, structured after the four globalization components:

      • Political

      • Economical

      • Cultural

      • Technological

    • In light of Roland Roberston's understanding of globalization, Ayish argues that the powerful homogenizing forces of globalization have not negated the existence of "an active interplay between the global, national, and local"


    Checklist for class today32 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Television development in the Arab world in the 1990s was "a function of the interplay between local and global forces in political, cultural, economic, and technological sectors“

    • The book falls short of a detailed discussion of Robertson's term "glocalization.“

    • Globalization may be the concept of the 1990s

    • Type the term into Google

    • Specify the term in field and subfields

    • Type the term in the Amazon.com


    Checklist for class today33 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Economic globalization:

    • Denotes a qualitative shift from a largely national to a globalized economy, in which although national economies continue to predominate within nations, they are often subordinate to transnational processes and transactions


    Checklist for class today34 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Political globalization:

    • Samuel Huntington

    • the recent worldwide spread of democracy is the best manifestation of political globalization

      • Global civil society

      • Global public sphere

      • Cosmopolitan democracy


    Checklist for class today35 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Anthony Giddens perceived globalization as the consequence of modernity and in its four manifestations:

      • Nation-state

      • World capitalism

      • Military order

      • Modern culture


    Checklist for class today36 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Cultural Globalization:

    • Roland Robertson adopted the concept of “glocalisation” a term whose origins are in the discipline of marketing to express

    • the global production of the local: McDonaldization

    • the localization of the global: French McDonalds

    • Some sociologists prefer to use the term “Americanization” to globalization because the latter implies more of a

    • “multidimensional relationship among many nations”


    Checklist for class today37 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Ayish's second chapter is a historical account of Arab world television history

    • He divides the development of Arab world television into three main periods

    • The first period is the formative phase (1954-1975)

    • It was characterized by the "commercial start" and by "private players" that were engaged in these activities "for purely commercial purposes"


    Checklist for class today38 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Ayish's second chapter is a historical account of Arab world television history

    • He divides the development of Arab world television into three main periods

    • The second phase is that of national expansion (1976-1990)

    • During this phase, Arab regimes "sought to build up their national broadcasting capabilities through

      • training local staff

      • increasing local production

      • pooling inter-Arab production resources

      • and by extending transmissions to cover national territories“

  • Imported programs from the United States, Europe, and Egypt dominated the programming


  • Checklist for class today39 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Ayish's second chapter is a historical account of Arab world television history

    • He divides the development of Arab world television into three main periods

    • The third phase is the regional and global expansion since 1990

    • due to a number of developments including:

      • Mass education

      • Rapid urbanization

      • Political transformation

      • Technology diffusion


    Checklist for class today40 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Ayish examines critically questions of financing broadcast operations and of financial survival, granted limited Arab advertising markets

    • According to Ayish, there are five patterns of television financing in the Arab world:

    • 1. Government budgetary subsidies

    • 2. Advertising

    • 3. Pay-TV

    • 4. Media free zones

    • 5. Corporate pooling

    • Of enduring significance for the democratizing role of these satellite outlets are media free zones in some Arab countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and the United Arab Emirates

    • These free zones are spaces provided to media organizations to start their operations in a tax-free environment


    Checklist for class today41 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Ayish typologies

    • He distinguishes between three patterns of communication:

      • 1. Traditional government-controlled television = The localist pattern

      • 2. Reformist government-controlled television = The glocalist pattern

      • 3. Liberal commercial television = The globalist pattern


    Checklist for class today42 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Ayish typologies

    • 1. The traditional government-controlled television pattern is dominant in countries such as Libya, Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, Sudan, Tunisia, and Morocco

    • 2. The reformist government-controlled television pattern is to be found in countries such as the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Egypt, Bahrain, and Algeria.

    • 3. The commercial liberal television pattern is dominant in Qatar, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Lebanon


    Checklist for class today43 l.jpg

    Arab World Television in the Age of Globalization: an Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Criticism on Ayish typologies

    • There are, nevertheless, some problems with this

    • For instance, the commercial liberal television pattern is not in fact dominant in Saudi Arabia but rather is funded by Saudi capital, hence the author's reference to MBC, ART and Orbit when including Saudi Arabia in this third type


    Checklist for class today44 l.jpg

    Satellite Broadcasting: The Moroccan Case Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Many communication experts argue that the development of television satellites in other Arab countries had forced Morocco to open up in a number of ways. As a response to the unexpected explosion of satellite television in the Arab world, the regime launched its satellite channel in 1996 and its signals can be received in the Arab world and in Europe

    • The program is a compilation of programs in Arabic and is sent above all to Moroccan communities, especially in Europe and in the Arab world. The programs were so poor that it was reported that only a tiny minority of Moroccans showed interest in its programs


    Checklist for class today45 l.jpg

    Satellite Broadcasting: The Moroccan Case Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Since the legalisation of the ownership of satellite in 1992 and the abolition of the tax on its possession, satellite dishes have mushroomed on the rooftops of buildings and houses in urban centres and villages of the country

    • The developments that began to emerge in the early 1990s and intensified in the late 1990s will become even more widespread and pronounced during the coming years

    • Approximately 70 percent of the Moroccan households owned a satellite dish

    • The “parabool” as the Moroccans call the satellite, has turned into a social phenomenon


    Checklist for class today46 l.jpg

    Satellite Broadcasting: The Moroccan Case Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Moroccan Radio Television (MRT) operates state-run Television Marocaine (MTV)

    • 2M partly state-owned

    • Al Maghribiya - satellite channel operated by MRT and 2M,

    • Medi 1 Sat - Tangier-based satellite channel, privately-owned by Moroccan and French concerns


    Checklist for class today47 l.jpg

    MOROCCO TV satellite dishes, Chaouen. Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:


    Checklist for class today48 l.jpg

    MOROCCO TV satellite dishes, Tangier Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Checklist for Class today:


    Checklist for class today49 l.jpg

    Media Ethics and Fragmentation of Arab Public Sphere: Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Al-Jazeera’s Political Talk Shows

    Checklist for Class today:

    • A decade after its emergence, Arab satellite broadcasting has quickly acquired a large audience

    • Al-Jazeera’s different “cross-fire” types of political talk shows, its most revolutionary programmes, are watched by large audiences, because they debate on some of the most sensitive issues in Arab society

    • Thus, they are being assumed the role, among other things, to spreading democratic attitudes, as well as building the foundations of a radically new pluralist culture of political debate, necessary for the development and functioning of a herrschaftsfreie public sphere, where different discourses compete discursively and argumentatively over the hearts and minds of Arab people


    Checklist for class today50 l.jpg

    Media Ethics and Fragmentation of Arab Public Sphere: Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Al-Jazeera’s Political Talk Shows

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Other accounts argue that Al-Jazeera’s political talk shows have “degenerated into unproductive shouting matches in which abuse replaced dialogue”

    • Instead of functioning as a platform for rational debate, Al-Jazeera’s political talk shows have turned out to be a platform of political emotionalism and “a vehicle for the collective venting of emotion”

    • One common explanation among journalists, communication scholars and policy makers for this degeneration of the political talk shows is that the status of media ethics in the Arab satellite broadcasting is not professional enough

    • They claim that while the level of professionalism has greatly increased, there is a lack of professional ethics in the journalistic work, because a large proportion of Arab journalists is politicised and divided along political cleavages and do not believe that it is its job to provide critical coverage of politics


    Checklist for class today51 l.jpg

    Media Ethics and Fragmentation of Arab Public Sphere: Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Al-Jazeera’s Political Talk Shows

    Checklist for Class today:

    • However, it can be argued that the problem of media ethics is not only influenced by the hard-to-die tradition of authoritarian grip over media institutions and weak professional background but also by the Arab passive and mediot (idiot of the media) audience, with its uncritical media habitus

    • While Arab entertainment satellite channels, with low quality programmes like reality shows are not necessarily subject to a strict media ethics, Al-Jazeera is under constant examination and monitoring of its news, documentaries and talk shows to see whether it stick to professional standards of media ethics or not

    • While Al-Jazeeras’ journalists are not under the ethos of public service and have committed themselves togive “no priority to commercial or political considerations over professionalism”, self-censorship, driven by geopolitical considerations, is still practised.


    Checklist for class today52 l.jpg

    Media Ethics and Fragmentation of Arab Public Sphere: Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Al-Jazeera’s Political Talk Shows

    Checklist for Class today:

    • However, it can be argued that the problem of media ethics is not only influenced by the hard-to-die tradition of authoritarian grip over media institutions and weak professional background but also by the Arab passive and mediot (idiot of the media) audience, with its uncritical media habitus

    • Under the combined impacts of Arab and American pressures, Al-Jazeera formulated during its first “World Forum” in Doha in July 2004 its one-page “Code of Ethics”

    • In it, Al-Jazeera pledges, among other things, to adhere to journalistic standards of balance and independence

      • (1), to treat audiences with respect

      • (3); to present diverse points of view

      • (5), and to distinguish between news and opinion

    • (see, Al-Jazeera’s Code of Ethics).


    Checklist for class today53 l.jpg

    Media Ethics and Fragmentation of Arab Public Sphere: Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Al-Jazeera’s Political Talk Shows

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Al-Jazeera’s motto “opinion and counter-opinion” has given it the reputation that its political talk shows function as a free, independent and open critical public space, where Arab citizens can speak and expect to be heard

    • However, Al-Jazeera has been often accused that its political talk shows seek “sensationalism” and the promotion of the culture of conflict rather than consensus

    • It has been reported that professional standards of objectivity and balanced journalism have not crystallised so far in Al-Jazeera’s journalistic work


    Checklist for class today54 l.jpg

    Media Ethics and Fragmentation of Arab Public Sphere: Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Al-Jazeera’s Political Talk Shows

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Al-Jazeera has contributed to the formation of a public sphere that supports a discursive culture of political debate or to its fragmentation

    • Al-Ittijah Al-Moakis on issues related exclusively to political reform and democratisation


    Checklist for class today55 l.jpg

    Media Ethics and Fragmentation of Arab Public Sphere: Analysis of Emerging Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological Patterns

    Al-Jazeera’s Political Talk Shows

    Checklist for Class today:

    • Has Al-Jazeera abided by its “Code of Ethics”?