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Invasive Alien Species in Germany and in International Conventions and the Role of Botanic Gardens. Frank Klingenstein. Nature conservation and phytosanitary measures: The German federal perspective and activities on IAS. 1) Biological globalisation: a) global situation
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Invasive Alien Species in Germany and in International Conventions and the Role of Botanic Gardens
varieties of Great Tit (Parus major)
destruction of habitats
source: World Conservation Monitoring Centre, „Global Biodiversity“ (1992)
Reasons for Threat to the German Flora
59 (~10%) of 653 threatened species in Germany are aliens (archaeophytes
~ 20 % of all archaeophytes are threatened
archaeophytic alien species are often of special concern for conservation
„It disturbs me that I do not know all these herbs, bushes and plants, which may be very valuable for use as dyes, medicine or spices. I will take home samples of most of them.“ (18.10.1492)
50 % intended introductions
30% ornamental plants20 % usful plants for forestry and agriculture
natural migration: 1 species in 50.000 years = 1.200 species
Polynesian settlers 1.400 years ago: 1 species in 30 years = 45 new species
since the discovery by Cook in 1778: 1 species in 2 months = 1.000 new species
The biomass of alien species exceeds that of indigenous species
source: Davis et al. 1995, WWF & IUCN
escaped from BG Berlin in 1825
„alien“ „bad“ need for criteria
e.g. alien weeds
escaped from BG Breslau ~ 1850
Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora)
escaped from BG Paris in 1800
e.g. toxic plants
Common Field Speedwell (Veronica persica)escaped from BG Karlsruhe in 1805
Call for eradication of Saxon Botanists (~1940):
„Like bolschewism endangers our occidental culture, this Mongolian invader as a crucial element of this culture threatens the beauty of our native forests.“
Most important garden in Germany and one of the largest in the world
Small Balsam (Impatiens parviflora)escaped from BG Berlin in 1837
build since 1978
due to decreasing budget huge +/- wild areas
Cephalaria alpinaCephalaria giganteaEchinops exaltatusCerinthe minorDoronicum pardalianchesEuphorbia polychromaGeum coccineumGeum japonicumScabiosa banaticaEryngium giganteumInula magnificaLychnis coronariaVerbascum olympicumCollomia linearisOenothera spp.Solidago flexicaulisSolidago graminifolia
Duchesnea indica (Indian Strawberry)
sold as garden plant since 1850spreading in BG Bayreuth since 1984escaped from BG Bielefeld 1974
Origin: North America
described 1837 from greenhouses in BG Schönbrunn, Vienna
since 1955 reproducing in Hamburg and damaging buildings etc.
... and other unintended species e.g. in soil ....
Nowadays only reproducing in greenhouses
But what will happen with climatic change?
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species(CITES; 1973)
Implementation in the European Union (EC 338/97):§ 3 (2) d: Export and trade of species may be limited, if they endanger biodiversity in the importing country
International standard for phytosanitary measures 11 (2003):Risk assessment for quarantine pests including analysis of environmental risks
§ 8 h: Contracting parties shall ...
prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species
Guiding Principles for invasive alien species (2002)
precautionary, three-stage approach(prevention, control, management)
harmonization of legislation and measures
cooperation / responsibilities of stakeholders