Advertisement Goal: To increase your awareness of the techniques employed by advertisers to manipulate consumer behavior and to teach you how to resist the techniques.
Introduction • Advertising is a powerful source of influence and that many of our everyday decisions are subtly shaped by the ads that we see, hear, and smell. By learning more about advertising and being consciously aware of the techniques used to persuade us to buy certain products or act in a certain way, we may be less likely to be persuaded to do something we might otherwise choose not to do.
Purpose of Advertising • Why do companies Advertise? • Do you think advertisers always tell the truth about their products? • The purpose of advertising is to sell products. • Many advertisers do not merely present the facts but may actually exaggerate the claims of their products in order to persuade people to buy them. • On occasion, some advertisers may even be deliberately deceptive.
What are the different forms of advertising? • TV Commercials • Radio commercials • Magazine ads • Newspaper ads • Billboards • Internet ads • Ads at the movies • Ads on buses or taxis • Ads on trains or in the subway
Advertising Techniques • Advertisers have learned from past experience and test marketing how to most effectively persuade consumers to buy their products or services. • Advertisers “TARGET” the particular group of people who are the most likely to buy a particular product or service. This is called a “TARGET GROUP”. • Advertisers may have a relatively broad target group (i.e. teenagers) or they may have a relatively specific target group (i.e. teens who ride mountain bikes, teens who are dog owners, left handed teens who are baseball players). • Advertisers use special methods or techniques to sell to a target group. These techniques include a stated message(what the ad actually says) and an implied or hidden message.
Advertising Techniques • Celebrity Endorsement: Has a famous or well known person (i.e. movies stars or athletes) talks about how great the product is or that they use it themselves. Creates the impression that the product must be good if they use it, and if you want to be like them you should use it too. • Voice of authority: Has experts or authorities such as doctors or scientists ( or actors playing the part of the expert) talk about the effectiveness of the product such as toothpaste or pain medicine. . Since they are experts, advertisers count on the fact that consumers are likely to believe what they say about how the product works.
Advertising techniques • Scientific Evidence: Presents “facts” and statistics from surveys supporting the effectiveness of particular products. This is often combined with the voice of Authority. • Comparisons Tests and Opinion Polls: Presents the results of consumer opinion polls or “taste test” involving direct comparison of similar (competing) products. These ads intend to show that most people like Brand A over Brand B, or Product X is stronger, lighter, safer or less expensive than others products. • Demonstrations: Intended to show how well a product works. Some of these advertisements have been found to be rigged by advertisers to make the product look much better than it is (Dishwasher soap, window cleaners, vacuum cleaners).
Advertising Techniques • Bandwagon Appeal: Intended to create the impression that everybody is using a particular product and because everyone is using it you should too. • Romance/ Sex appeal: Uses very attractive models in a way that implies that using the product will make te person using it more romantic or sexually attractive. • Maturity/ Sophistication Appeal: Intended to show that if you buy a certain product you will be more grown up, sophisticated, and fashionable. • Fun/ Relaxation appeal: Intended to sell the product by convincing you that it will help you have more fun or feel more relaxed
Advertising Techniques • Popularity Appeal: Intended to convince you to buy a certain product by implying that if you use it you will be more popular. • The Deal Appeal: Tries to create a sense of urgency and excitement by implying that this deal is too good to pass up. Generally focuses on price and creates a sense of urgency by saying that the deal ill end soon because the sale price is only good for a few days and or there is a limited supply of the product.
Cigarette and Alcohol Ads • Cigarette smoking is not natural, but a habit that is learned and that getting people to maintain that habit is something into which the tobacco industry pours billions of dollars each year to get you to buy cigarettes or smokeless tobacco. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y84JxduQONU
Cigarettes and Alcohol Ads • Large anounts of money are also spent each year to persuade people to buy alcohol beverages (beer, wine, liquor, etc) • Deadly Persuasion: The Advertising of Alcohol and Tobacco(You Tube Video) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-qFENyemgk8
Analyzing Advertisements • Remember • Advertisers are tying to manipulate individuals into buying cigarettes or alcohol by creating the impression that smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol will somehow make their life easier or more enjoyable. • Smoking or drinking does not make individuals more popular, successful, masculine or feminine, sophisticated, grown up up “macho”. • Smoking and drinking is not clean and healthy as depicted in the ads.