Types of Corruption – Accidental* *Burgon, J. W. ”Causes of Corruption of the Traditonal Text” p.10-88 Purely accidental – bad originals, insertion/omission, differing styles Homoeoteleuton – likeness of ending words, consecutive words, next line words, etc. Uncials – Upper case with no punctuation, confusion to placement of word in sentence Itacism(also Etacism) – mistakes caused by knowing the spoken word, and misspelling it in written form Liturgical Influence – mistaking a note or statement in a liturgical setting as scripture
Types of Corruption – Intentional Willful mutilation of scripture – remove (take away) that which doesn’t match false doctrine Editorial corrections to the biblical text – altering of (adding to) the text to reflect the copyist’s doctrine Revelation 22:18-19 For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.
The Father of Corruption Genesis 3:1 Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? • At first mention Satan is called “more subtil” • Satan casts doubt on the word of God from the beginning
The Father of Corruption Galatians 1:6-8 I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel: Which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ. But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed.
The Father of Corruption Revelation 2:8-9 And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive; I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan.
When Did Corruption Occur? *Grady, William P. ”Final Authority” p.73-96 II Peter 3:16 …they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction. • Corruption began before the Bible was completed • Contrary to the testimony of modern textual critics, the majority of (and worst) corruption occurred within the first two centuries after the Bible was written • Where? Alexandria, Egypt*
Origen (185-254 A.D.) • Influenced by “Alexandrian Christian Philosophy” as popularized by Clement (150-217 A.D.) • He was influenced by gnostic doctrine • He interpreted scripture in a mystical way – “The scriptures are of little use to those who understand them as they are written” • He believed in universal salvation • He was one of the first to refer to pastors as priests
Origen (185-254 A.D.) • He wrote about 6,000 books which contain many thousands of biblical quotations • His crowning work was his Hexapla – a six-column parallel Old Testament • He frequently corrected the New Testament text • His method has become known as “conjectural emendation” among textual critics • This means to “change the text to what you think it should be”
Principle Players of Corruption • Origen (185-254 A.D.) • Eusebius (260-339 A.D.) – commissioned by Constantine to produce the Greek Eusebio-Constantine Bible • Jerome (320-420 A.D.) • commissioned by Pope Damasus to standardize the Latin text • His Latin Vulgate was the official Catholic Bible through the Dark Ages
Corruption from Origen Eusebio-Constantine Bible (331 A.D.) “Official Greek” ORIGEN “The Father of Corrupt Bibles” Codex Vaticanus (B) Rheims-Douay English Version (1582-1610 A.D.) “Official English” Latin Vulgate (390-405 A.D.) “Official Latin” Greek copies of the originals Corrupted Latin Bibles Old Latin (150 A.D.) Waldensian Bibles Pure Stream
Sinaiticus (א) and Vaticanus (B) • Two uncial codices that date from around 340 A.D. • Accepted by textual critics on the basis of their age • The reason they have survived is a lack of use • Sinaiticus discovered in a trash can in 1844 • Vaticanus stored in a library • They are both parchment manuscripts • They came out of Alexandria bearing the influence of Origen and Eusebius and gnostic doctrine
Westcott and Hort • B. F. Westcott (1825-1901 A.D.) and F. J. A. Hort (1828-1892 A.D.) • Their work was done in an age of reason that denied the supernatural • These two men produced a Greek text in 1881 • They deny verbal inspiration • This text was based primarily on א and B • The modern “science” of textual criticism is in large part due to their theory
English Perversions Hodges-FarstadMajority Text RV (1881) Westcott and Hort Text ASV (1901) LB (1967) NASB (1963) Nestle Text NKJV (1979) RSV (1946) Corrupt Greek manuscripts Eclectic Texts TEV (1966) Nestle-Aland Text Greek copies of the originals United Bible Societies Text NIV (1973) Vast majority of miniscule manuscripts The Received Text of Erasmus KJV (1611) Pure Stream
Principle Procedures of Corruption • Cast doubt • Appeal to human reason: Oldest = Best • King James Onlyersare too emotional, therefore must be wrong • KJV doesn’t keep up with English language changes • Blame the messenger • King James not a good person • Translators not Baptist • Hide their agenda – pre-imminence, recognition, money