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  1. Creativity at work Torino September 25 2007 Han van der Meer

  2. Basic skills 1.Gathering and interpreting data 2. Writing reports 3. 1 : 1 conversation (interviewing, consulting) 4. Presenting (to a group) 5. Facilitating interactive session

  3. CPS is multi usable • Product development • Process development • Market research • Long Range planning • Business Planning • Technology transfer

  4. Content Foundations 1. 2. Techniques for divergent stages 3. Creative person 4. Techniques for convergent stages 5. Setting up a session

  5. desired situation present situation problem problem solving Basic model

  6. Open and closed problems

  7. Open problems Starting with: How to …? In what ways might we …? Wouldn’t it be nice if …?

  8. dream in what ways might we how to now Open questions wouldn’t it be nice if Free after Robert Fritz “Creating” 1991

  9. Natural process idea solutions

  10. Idea  solution • Separate stages • Different rules for each stage

  11. The creative process preparation incubation illumination verification Wallas (1926)

  12. fact finding divergent option generation problem finding idea finding convergent option selection solution finding Osborne Parnes model acceptance finding CPS (Creative Problem Solving) model Osborn (1953) Buffalo, New York

  13. NIH NOT INVENTED HERE

  14. divergent Fact finding Acceptance finding Content finding convergent Adjusted model Free after Geschka 2004

  15. divergent convergent Basic model content finding - focus on task task - generate options - select options - share results result - decide on next step

  16. X X Parallel and/or serial

  17. Content 1. Foundations 2. 3. Creative person 4. Techniques for convergent stages 5. Setting up a session Techniques for divergent stages

  18. divergent Fact finding Acceptance finding Content finding convergent Basic model

  19. divergent convergent Golden rules of diverging • Defer judgement • Strive for quantity • Seek combinations • Freewheel

  20. Defer judgement YES, BUT YES, AND

  21. divergent convergent Golden rules of diverging • Defer judgement • Strive for quantity • Seek combinations • Freewheel

  22. Generate in 1 minute as much FRUITS

  23. Novel combined with useful • Everyday • Common • Expected • Unusual • Silly • Little apparent usefulness Energy 1st wave 2nd wave 3rd wave Time Extended effort Source: Parnes, 1968

  24. many divergent convergent as ideas as possible original Goal of diverging

  25. divergent convergent Golden rules of diverging • Defer judgement • Strive for quantity • Seek combinations • Freewheel

  26. divergent convergent Three main categories • Associative methods • Methods based on confrontation • Systematic methods

  27. divergent convergent Three main categories Associative methods • Methods based on creative confrontation • Systematic methods

  28. Associative methods • Basic principle • Every person has different associations and associations chainsInteraction will lead to chain reactions within a group

  29. Associative methods • Basic rules • - Quantity breeds quality • - Stepping stones • - Defer judgement • Important techniques • - Brainstorming (Osborne) • - Brainwriting • (Brainwriting with Post-Its™; 6-3-5; Brainwriting Pool)

  30. Brainstorm rules 1. Freewheel 2. Seek combinations 3. Defer judgement 4. Strive for quantity (repetition allowed)

  31. How to improve a bath tub

  32. Classical brainstorm • What helped / was useful • What hindered / was disturbing

  33. Guidelines for using Post-its Make Your Responses... • Readable - Write them clearly, legibly and large enough to be seen • Concise - Keep them brief, use “telegraphic” form • Specific - Share the essence, one option per Post-it

  34. divergent convergent Three main categories • Associative methods • Systematic methods Methods based on creative confrontation

  35. problem in other field solutions for other field forced fit excursion problem as given new solutions Methods based on creative confrontation • Basic principle • Force an ‘AHA-experience’ through conscious alienation from the problem (excursion) and relating the strange elements to the problem (force fit)

  36. Methods based on creative confrontation • Basic rules • Estrange from the familiar (excursion) familiarise the strange elements (forced fit)

  37. Important techniques • Random stimulus • Hidden presumptions • SCAMPER • Focus points from analyses • Guided Fantasy • TRIZ

  38. Brainstorm Enhancers: SCAMPER • S ubstitute • C ombine • A dapt • M odify Magnify Minify • P ut to other uses • E liminate • R earange, Reverse

  39. divergent convergent Three main categories • Associative methods • Methods based on creative confrontation Systematic Methods

  40. Systematic methods Basic principle Every problem consists of sub-problems and is part of a larger problem • Basic rules • Systematic exploration, arrangement and clustering of elements of the problem • Systematic exploration of relations between the problem and other problems • or • of relations within a problem

  41. Systematic methods • Important techniques • Progressive abstraction (or Ladder of Abstraction) • Morphology

  42. Progressive abstraction Basic principle Regard a problem as a derivative of a problem of a higher level of abstraction

  43. WHY HOW

  44. ? Too many farmers Stop bonus Too many cows Stop bonus Export Too much milk Cheese Dried milk School milk Butter mountain Cheap surplus butter Sell to Russia Example progressive abstraction

  45. Why else? Why? Why else? NEW STATEMENT: NEW STATEMENT: NEW STATEMENT: WHY ELSE? WHY? WHY ELSE? NEW STATEMENT: NEW STATEMENT: NEW STATEMENT: WHY ELSE? WHY? WHY ELSE? INITIAL STATEMENT HOW ELSE? HOW? HOW ELSE? NEW STATEMENT: NEW STATEMENT: NEW STATEMENT: HOW ELSE? HOW? HOW ELSE? NEW STATEMENT: NEW STATEMENT: NEW STATEMENT: How else? How? How else? Ladder of Abstraction

  46. Morphology Especially appropriate for complex technical problems Basic principles • Divide the problem into parts (dimensions) • Find alternative solutions for the main dimensions • Find total solutions by combining Example: packaging of fruit juice

  47. Example Morphological box How to pack fruit juice Dimension Alternatives Material Glass Tin Paraffined cardboard Form Rectangle Triangle Bag Opening Screw top Tear open Puncture Outside coating Printed Plastic Aluminium Solution: Tetrapack

  48. Example Morphological box How to pack fruit juice Dimension Alternatives Material Glass Tin Paraffined cardboard Form Rectangle Triangle Bag Opening Screw top Tear open Puncture Outside coating Printed Plastic Aluminium Solution: ?

  49. Content 1. Foundations 2. Techniques for divergent stages 3. 4. Tecnniques for convergent stages 5. Setting up a session Creative person

  50. 4 P’s of Creativity Product Process Person Pressure