Middle Ages - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

alanj
middle ages n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Middle Ages PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Middle Ages

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 31
Download Presentation
Middle Ages
0 Views
Download Presentation

Middle Ages

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Middle Ages http://www.scs.carleton.ca/~avardy/pics/Montreal,Quebec,Canada/Notre_Dame_Cathedral.JPG

  2. Post-Classical Europe • Known as Middle Ages • Medieval Period • Europe viewed as backward by other peoples of the world • Less technology and agricultural development

  3. Early Post-Classical Period • Many problems in the early years of the post-classical period • Viking invasions • Weak rulers due to decentralized govt • Illiteracy • Low agricultural productivity

  4. Early Post-Classical Period • Economic Activity: • Subsistence farming common • Many people lived as serfs on large manors owned by a wealthier landlord • Serfs had difficult lives, but were not slaves • Low agricultural productivity • Inefficient tools and farming methods made agriculture difficult

  5. Early Post-Classical Period • Government: • Localized government • Manorialism was most common political and economic arrangement • Peasants and serfs worked on agricultural estates owned by landlords • Exchanged part of their crop and labor for protection • Very few large kingdoms developed • Exception was Charlemagne’s short-lived empire

  6. CharlemagneKing of the Franks http://www.tomarken.com/content/crit/articles/2002/great/charlem.gif

  7. Early Post-Classical Period • Charlemagne (Charles the Great) • 8th century: Established empire in N. France, Belgium, and W. Germany • Achievements under Charlemagne • Promoted learning • Monks copied works from the past • Empire fell apart shortly after Charlemagne’s death (814) • Split into 3 kingdoms, which developed separately from each other

  8. Early Post-Classical Period • Fall of Charlemagne’s Empire set stage for further development in Western Europe • Fragmented into regional kingdoms, which would later become nations • Regional languages emerged to further divide the people • Most based on Latin (known as Romantic Languages), others based on Germanic languages

  9. Religion • Christianity was sole unifying force in Western Europe • Catholicism • Pope (in Rome) center of religious authority • Local Bishops • Missionary work • Monasteries and convents • Monks and Nuns served as religious examples to other Europeans • Promoted education • Latin became the language of educated people and church officials in Europe • Most people unable to read, write, or understand Latin

  10. Slow Changes after 900 C.E. • In 10th Century, Europe did experience small developmental changes • New agricultural techniques and technology made farming more productive • Moldboard plow • Landowners began to accumulate more wealth through sale of ag. commodities • Population growth • Able to feed more people

  11. Slow Changes after 900 C.E. • Urbanization increased • Cities became cultural centers • Still small in comparison to Middle East • Growth in education • Churches educated those who were destined for the Church • Literacy grew in cities • Viking conversions to Christianity led to fewer raids and invasions • Europe began to engage in more long-distance trade • New crops and technologies

  12. Governmental Changes • Feudalism emerged as the dominant political system • Began as localized agreements, grew into feudal kingdoms • System where lords (military elites) exchange service and loyalty for land (manors) • Vassals: lesser lords who swear loyalty to a more powerful lord (king) • Loyalty in exchange for land (fief) • Manors were worked by serfs and/or freed peasants • Exchanged labor and commodities for protection

  13. http://www.sbceo.k12.ca.us/~vms/carlton/Feudalismchart.jpg

  14. Knights • Armored warriors of the middle ages • Use of horses in warfare • Adopted stirrup from Central Asian nomads • Armor • Started out as open-faced helmet & long, metal studded shirts (hauberk) • Evolved into helmet with small visor and metal armor

  15. http://www.spyhunter007.com/Images/castle_knights_armor.jpg http://www.charlesfleming-sca.com/images/military/my_hauberk.jpg

  16. Governmental Developments • Overtime, kings used feudalism to buildup their own power • Examples of Governmental Development: • Capetian Family in France: • Powerbase near Paris, spread influence outward to create a feudal kingdom • England: • William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy) invaded England and abruptly established a feudal kingdom

  17. http://z.about.com/d/historymedren/1/0/N/conqueror.gif • William the Conqueror

  18. Governmental Developments • Europe’s political development was hindered by several factors • Church limited power of many kings • Became involved in politics • Pope directly controlled central Italy • Indirectly many other areas of Europe • Feudal Kingdoms fought each other • France and England rivals • The Hundred Years War

  19. Governmental Developments • In early part of Middle Ages, Monarchs were also restricted by the ideas of: • Limited Government • Magna Carta (1215) • Representative Government • 1265: Introduction on Parliaments: elected legislatures that are representatives of the people • England developed the strongest Parliamentarian system • People feared giving the monarch too much power.

  20. Expansion of European Influence • Population growth and economic development led to an increase in European expansion • Expand into eastern Europe • Reconquista in Spain • Efforts to remove Muslim influence in Spain • Completed in 1492 • Portugal emerged as a maritime power in Mediterranean and began to increase exploration along coast of Africa • Spain created after marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand • Alliance between Castille and Aragon • Viking exploration in Iceland, Greenland, and Hudson Bay area of Canada

  21. http://bms.westport.k12.ct.us/lmc/images/VikingMap.jpg

  22. Crusades • Series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims • Fight for control of Holy Land and access to riches and trade in Middle East • First Crusade in 1095 (request of Pope Urban II) • Promised salvation for Crusaders • Gained control of Jerusalem, later lost the city when Muslims rallied under the leadership of Saladin in 12th century • Impact of the Crusades • showed the west’s aggression toward the rest of the world • Exposed Europe to new ideas and technology

  23. http://www.islamproject.org/images/Crusades_Map_12-18.jpg

  24. Culture of the Middle Ages • Religion dominated culture • Conflict between faith and reason • Theology: study of religion • Growth in higher education in later years • BUT Minimal scientific discovery • Art was used to glorify God • Iconic images, stained glass windows with religious scenes • Gothic Architecture- buildings appeared to be reaching to the heavens • Much of writing done in Latin with religious topics BUT • Some began to write in the vernacular (language spoken by common people) about secular topics • Poems about love, chivalry, and court life were common

  25. Economy • 90% of population was rural • Most people peasants or serfs • Made living through farming • Population growth saw increase of cities • Became cultural and commercial centers • Increase in skilled labor • Skilled labor usually restricted to members of Guilds • Trade picked up (particularly in Italy and areas near coast) • Merchants became huge source of wealth, made loans to rulers • Conflict with Church because Church frowned upon charging interest on loans and feared money would corrupt people • Jews became major money lenders b/c their religion did not forbid charging interest (usury)

  26. Economy • Europe also saw development in certain industries • Mining increased and Europe was able to access metals for armor and weapon making • European’s harnessed the power of water from its many rivers and streams • Water Wheels used in mills to help grind grain and perform other tasks

  27. Urbanization • As populations and cities grew, the economy began to develop more rapidly • Problems of Urbanization and Economic Development • Environmental degradation • Deforestation, pollution of streams, lack of sanitation • Disease

  28. Black Death • Bubonic Plague • Caused by bacteria, transmitted by fleas and rats • Now treated with antibiotics • Communicable disease • Boils, blacks spots on skin, foul body odor • Impact • Killed 1/3 of European population • Skilled labor more expensive due to labor shortages • Peasant revolts, led to swift decline in serfdom as peasants and serfs ran away from their manors • Unrest in cities

  29. Government Structure in Late Middle Ages • Toward the end of the Middle Ages, hereditary monarchies began to increase in power • Feudalism weakened and aristocrats lost much of their power • New military technology reduced the need for knights • Gunpowder and artillery (cannons), longbow and crossbow became major part of military • Kings began to hire military personnel rather than depend on the vassals • Paid for with loans from bankers/businessmen and with new taxes that were collected on merchants and land

  30. Conclusion • Middle Ages were a time of contradictions in Western Europe. • Advances in some areas while still underdeveloped in others • Technological innovation in mining, milling, and waterpower BUT still inadequate food production • Military advances BUT at cost of more frequent wars and aggression • Trade increased and helped improve the European economy BUT gap between rich and poor still wide • Population growth offset by disease

  31. Conclusion • Christianity thrived BUT at expense of conflict with other religious groups • Religion was center of education which left Europe trailing behind the world in scientific discovery and other secular studies • Urbanization increased BUT most people still lived as serfs and peasants on the country side • Skilled labor increased BUT it was restricted to those in the guilds