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A First Look At COMMUNICATION THEORY Sixth Edition

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  1. Slide 1 A First Look AtCOMMUNICATION THEORYSixth Edition McGraw-Hill

  2. Slide 2 2 Mapping the Territory (Seven Traditions in the Field of Communication Theory) Chapter Content • The Socio-Psychological Tradition • The Cybernetic Tradition • The Rhetorical Tradition • The Semiotic Tradition • The Socio-Cultural Tradition • The Critical Tradition • The Phenomenological Tradition • Fencing the Field of Communication Theory • The Ethical Tradition

  3. Slide 3 The Socio-Psychological TraditionCommunication as interpersonal influence • This tradition epitomizes the scientific or objective perspective. • Scholars in this tradition believe communication truths can be discovered by careful, systematic observation. • They search for cause-and-effect relationships. • Hovland’s Yale Attitude Studies emphasized the framework of “who says what to whom and with what effect.”

  4. Slide 4 The Cybernetic TraditionCommunication as Information Processing • This tradition emphasizes how feedback makes information processing possible. • Theorists seek the answer to “How can we get the bugs out of this system?” • Communication is the link connecting the separate parts of any system, such as a computer system or media system. • Noise is the enemy of information because it cuts into the carrying capacity of the channel.

  5. Slide 5 The Cybernetic Tradition Figure 2.1: Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication Insert Figure 2.1 Here

  6. Slide 6 The Rhetorical TraditionCommunication as Artful Public Address • Six Features: • Speech distinguishes humans from other animals. • Public address is more effective than rule by decree. • Public speaking is one-way communication.

  7. Slide 7 The Rhetorical TraditionCommunication as Artful Public Address • Six Features: • Speech distinguishes humans from other animals. • Public address is more effective than rule by decree. • Public speaking is one-way communication. • Oratorical training is the cornerstone of a leader’s education. • Rhetoric is more art than science. • Oral public speaking had, until the 1800s, been the province of males.

  8. Slide 8 The Semiotic TraditionCommunication as the Process of Sharing Meaning Through Signs • A sign is anything that can stand for something else. • Words are also signs. • Meanings don’t reside in words or other symbols; meanings reside in people.

  9. Slide 9 The Semiotic TraditionCommunication as the Process of Sharing Meaning Through Signs • Most theorists in this tradition are trying to reduce the misunderstanding created by the use of ambiguous symbols. • The Semantic Triangle (Richards and Ogden) shows the indirect relationship between symbols and their supposed referents.

  10. Slide 10 The Semiotic Tradition Figure 2.2: Richard’s Semantic Triangle Insert Figure 2.2 Here

  11. Slide 11 The Socio-Cultural TraditionCommunication as the Creation and Enactment of Social Reality • Tradition based on premise that culture is produced and reproduced as people talk. • Our view of reality is strongly shaped by the language we’ve used since we were infants. • “The real world is to a large extent unconsciously built upon the language habits of the group” (Sapir-Whorf). • Persons-in-conversation co-construct their own social worlds.

  12. Slide 12 The Critical TraditionCommunication as a Reflective Challenge of Unjust Discourse • The term “critical theory” came from the work of a group of German scholars called the “Frankfurt School.” • They believed “all previous history has been characterized by an unjust distribution of suffering.”

  13. Slide 13 The Critical TraditionCommunication as a Reflective Challenge of Unjust Discourse • Frankfurt School researchers offered thoughtful analyses of: • the discrepancies between the liberal values of freedom and equality that leaders proclaimed • the unjust concentrations and abuses of power that made those values a myth.

  14. Slide 14 The Critical TraditionCommunication as a Reflective Challenge of Unjust Discourse • The critical tradition challenges three features of contemporary society: • The control of language to perpetuate power imbalances. • The role of mass media in dulling sensitivity to repression. • Blind reliance on the scientific method and uncritical acceptance of empirical findings.

  15. Slide 15 The Phenomenological TraditionCommunication as the Experience of Self and Others Through Dialogue • The phenomenological tradition places great emphasis on people’s perception and interpretation of their own subjective experience. • Rogers’ three necessary and sufficient conditions for personality and relationship change: • Congruence • Unconditional Positive Regard • Empathic Understanding

  16. Slide 16 Fencing the Field of Communication Theory Figure 2.3: A Survey Map of Traditions in the Field of Communication Theory Insert Figure 2.3 Here

  17. Slide 17 The Ethical TraditionCommunication as People of Character Interacting in Just and Beneficial Ways Principles of ethical communication:

  18. Slide 18 The Ethical TraditionCommunication as People of Character Interacting in Just and Beneficial Ways Principles of ethical communication: • We advocate truthfulness, accuracy, honesty, and reason as essential to the integrity of communication.

  19. Slide 19 The Ethical TraditionCommunication as People of Character Interacting in Just and Beneficial Ways Principles of ethical communication: • We advocate truthfulness, accuracy, honesty, and reason as essential to the integrity of communication. • We accept responsibility for the short-term consequences of our own communication and expect the same of others.

  20. Slide 20 The Ethical TraditionCommunication as People of Character Interacting in Just and Beneficial Ways Principles of ethical communication: • We advocate truthfulness, accuracy, honesty, and reason as essential to the integrity of communication. • We accept responsibility for the short-term consequences of our own communication and expect the same of others. • We strive to understand and respect other communicators before evaluating and responding to their messages.