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PHYS 3446 – Lecture #1

Monday, Aug. 28, 2006 Dr. Jae Yu. PHYS 3446 – Lecture #1. Who am I? Class time and location Information and communication sources Class specifications and style Class plans Syllabus Special semester projects Lab Evaluation Policy This class…. Who am I?.

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PHYS 3446 – Lecture #1

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  1. Monday, Aug. 28, 2006 Dr. JaeYu PHYS 3446 – Lecture #1 • Who am I? • Class time and location • Information and communication sources • Class specifications and style • Class plans • Syllabus • Special semester projects • Lab • Evaluation Policy • This class… PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  2. Who am I? • Name: Dr. Jaehoon Yu (You can call meDr. Yu) • Office: Rm 342, Chemistry and Physics Building • Extension: x22814, E-mail: jaehoonyu@uta.edu • My profession:High Energy Physics (HEP) • Collide particles (protons on anti-protons or electrons on anti-electrons, positrons) at the energies equivalent to 10,000 Trillion degrees • To understand • Fundamental constituents of matter • Interactions or forces between the constituents • Origin of Mass • Creation of Universe (Big Bang Theory) • A pure scientific research activity • Direct use of the fundamental laws we find may take longer than we want but • Indirect product of research contribute to every day lives; eg. WWW PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  3. Matter Molecule Atom Nucleus Baryon Quark (Hadron) u Electron (Lepton) High Energy Physics Structure of Matter 10-14m 10-9m 10-10m 10-15m <10-19m 10-2m Condensed matter/Nano-Science/Chemistry protons, neutrons, mesons, etc. p,W,L... top, bottom, charm, strange, up, down Atomic Physics Nuclear Physics <10-18m PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  4. Discovered in 1995 Directly observed in 2000 The Standard Model • Assumes the following fundamental structure: PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  5. Periodic Table Helium Neon u d u u d d All atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons Electron Neutron Proton Gluons hold quarks together Photons hold atoms together PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  6. Mysteries in High Energy Physics? • The “STANDARD MODEL” has been extremely successful • BUT… many mysteries • Why somany quarks/leptons?? • Whyfour forces?? • Can they all come from one? • Why is there large particle- antipaticle asymmetry? • Does Higgs particle exist? • Where doesmasscome from?? • Are there other theories?? PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  7. What are the roles of particle accelerators? • Smash particles together • Act as microscopes and time machines • The higher the energy, the smaller object to be seen • Particles that only existed at the time of the creation of the universe can be made • Two method of accelerator based experiments: • Collider Experiments: p`p, pp, e+e-, ep • Fixed Target Experiments: Particles on a target • Each can look for different things PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  8. Chicago  CDF p DØ Tevatron p Fermilab Tevatron and LHC at CERN • World’s Highest Energy proton-proton collider in summer 2007 • Ecm=14 TeV (=44x10-7J/p 1000M Joules on 10-4m2) • Equivalent to the kinetic energy of a 20t truck at a speed 711 mi/hr • Present world’s Highest Energy proton-anti-proton collider • Ecm=1.96 TeV (=6.3x10-7J/p 13M Joules on 10-4m2) • Equivalent to the kinetic energy of a 20t truck at a speed 81 mi/hr 1500 physicists 130 institutions 30 countries 5000 physicists 250 institutions 60 countries PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu CERN: http://www.cern.ch/ ; ATLAS: http://atlas.web.cern.ch/ Fermilab: http://www.fnal.gov/ ; DØ: http://www-d0.fnal.gov/

  9. European Design500 GeV (800 GeV) 33km= 21mi 47 km =29 mi US Design500 GeV (1 TeV) The International Linear Collider • Long~ linear electron-position colliders • 10 – 15 years from now • Takes 10 years to build an accelerator and the detectors PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  10. Calorimeter (dense) Muon Tracks Charged Particle Tracks Energy Scintillating Fiber Silicon Tracking Interaction Point Ä B EM hadronic Magnet Wire Chambers How can we tell apart particle? electron photon jet muon We know x,y starting momenta is zero, but along the z axis it is not, so many of our measurements are in the xy plane, or transverse neutrino -- or any non-interacting particle missing transverse momentum PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  11. DØ Detector 30’ 30’ 50’ ATLAS Detector • Weighs 10,000 tons • As tall as a 10 story building • Can inspect 1,000,000,000 collisions/second • Will record 200 collisions/second • Records 300 Mega-bytes/second • Will record 2.0x1015 (2,000,000,000,000,000) bytes each year (2 PetaByte). • Weighs 5000 tons • As tall as a 5 story building • Can inspect 3,000,000 collisions/second • Record 100 collisions/second • Records 10 Mega-bytes/second • Recording 0.5x1015 (500,000,000,000,000) bytes per year (0.5 PetaBytes). PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  12. p `p Data Reconstruction How are computers used in HEP? Digital Data PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  13. How does an Event Look in a Collider Detector? Highest ET dijet event at DØ CH “calorimeter jet” hadrons FH  EM “particle jet” Time “parton jet” PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  14. Class Time and Location • Current: 1:00 – 2:20pm, Mon & Wed, SH 105 • Proposal: 1:00 – 2:20pm, Mon & Wed, CPB303 PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  15. Information & Communication Source • My web page: http://www-hep.uta.edu/~yu/ • Contact information & Class Schedule • Syllabus • Homework • Holidays and Exam days • Evaluation Policy • Class Style & Communication • Other information • Primary communication tool is e-mail: Register for PHYS3446-001-FALL06 e-mail distribution list as soon possible  Instruction available in Class style & Communication • 5 points extra credit if done by next Wednesday, Sept. 6 • 3 points extra credit if done by next Friday, Sept. 8 • Office Hours: 2:30 – 3:30pm, Mondays and Wednesdays or by appointments PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  16. How to subscribe to the class e-mail list? • Log onto your most favorite e-mail account that you read all the time. • Send e-mail to listserv@listserv.uta.edu without subject and with the following in the body: • Subscribe phys3446-001-fall06 YourFirstName YourLastName • The e-mail should look as follows (note that there are no spaces in the list name): PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  17. Class Specification • Text Books • Das and Ferbel, “Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics” • R. Fernow, “Introduction to Experimental Particle Physics” • Reading Assignments • Not just based on the books • We will use published papers as well • Extra credit on class participations and attendances up to 10% • Homework Assignments: • There will be homework problems randomly assigned throughout the semester • Two Written Term Exams (15% each) • Term #1: Wed. Oct. 4 • Term #2: Wed. Nov. 15 • UTA Large Perpetual Cloud Chamber Projects and Presentations (20%+10%) PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  18. Syllabus • Nuclear Physics (~1/3 of the semester) • Nuclear Phenomenology • Nuclear Models • Nuclear Radiation • High Energy Experimental Techniques • Particle energy deposit in matter • Particle detector techniques and detectors • Accelerators • HEP Phenomenology • Elementary particle interactions • Symmetries • Discrete Transformations • CP violations • The Standard Model PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  19. Syllabus • Neutrinos • Neutrinos and proton structure functions • sin2qW measurements and its impact to Higgs • Neutrino Oscillation • Electroweak Symmetry Breaking • Standard Model EWSB formalism & Higgs • Minimal Super-symmetric Extension of Standard Model • Other EWSB Theories (SUSY) & Other Types of Higgs • Strategy for Higgs search • New Phenomena • Will be mixed with appropriate experimental techniques PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  20. Attendances and Class Style • Attendances: • Will be taken randomly • Will be used for extra credits • Class style: • Lectures will be on electronic media • The lecture notes will be posted on the web AFTER each class • Will be mixed with traditional methods • Active participation through questions and discussions are STRONGLY encouraged  Extra credit…. PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  21. Semester Projects • Completion of the UTA Large Perpetual Cloud Chamber Design • Must participate in a few workshops • Allowed to use the NP lab for your own experiment after the regular lab • Final project consists of • A 5 - 7 page paper each (must become a UTA-HEP note): 20% of the total • A 10 minute power point presentation each: 10% of the total • Report Due and Presentation Dates • Presentations: Mon. Dec. 4 and Wed. Dec. 6 • Report Due: At the beginning of the class on Wed. Dec. 6 PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  22. What is the UTA PLCC? • Cloud chamber is a charged particle detection device • Uses super-cooled, super-saturated, unstable vapor • Displays charged particle trajectories when particles travel through the vapor • Normally uses ethanol or isopropyl as the medium • So the chamber involves techniques in both physics and chemistry  perfect opportunity for students from the two departments to work together • New CPB contains a large planetarium with a spacious foyer to display things that stimulate scientific minds • Shows that there are cosmic particles coming from the universe • They see particle trajectories before and after the planetarium lectures • This detector can be used for class demonstrations and lab measurements PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  23. DT=~100oC Visible Track • Use super-cooled, super-saturated, unstable vapor as the medium • When a charged particle passes through the super-saturated vapor, the vapor forms droplets along the trajectory of the particle • A strong light beam makes the track appear on the background • The track then falls onto the bottom of the chamber due to gravity Basic Idea of the Cloud Chamber PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  24. The Scope of the Project • Dimensions of the proposed chamber: • The largest such chamber available is 1mx50cm horizontal w/ about 10 cm thick cloud. • None I have seen had a display that shows an extended trajectory through an entire height. • All need to be looked at from an angle with respect to horizontal line • This UTA chamber will therefore be the largest physical dimension in the world • It will also occasionally show a spectacular breakage of atoms through collisions of heavy particles, such as a particles. PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  25. ref A Schematic Chamber Diagram PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  26. Concerns in the Chamber • Requirements • The chamber must be very safe!!! • The chamber must look very nice and impressive!! • The chamber must function at all times, continuously!! • The chamber should be require minimal maintenance!! • The chamber should be as compact as possible!! • The chamber shouldn’t be an untouchable!! • The super-cooled vapor is heavy and settles low on the bottom of the chamber • Cooling of the vapor should be done evenly and effectively • Cooling coils will be placed at the bottom of the chambers • How do we regulate the temperature? PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  27. Concerns in the Chamber • How do we keep vapor supply continuously without having to add the medium too frequently? • What medium would be better? • Is there a medium that does not require significant cooling to be in a super-cooled state? • On what angle with which color light is good for display • Can people see from the front? • What color trajectories is more visible? • Which way should be magnetic field be? • How strong a magnetic field? • Which direction should be field be? PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  28. Semester Projects • Four topics • Chamber structural design • Including the alcohol warmer and support • Refrigeration • Thermo-electric Module (TEM) design and operation • Liquid supply and recirculation system • Light and display • How do we design to show the best PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  29. Laboratory • Location: Room 008 in basement • Time: 1:00 – 3:50pm, Fridays • Requirements: Must be trained for radiation safety • A few measurements throughout the semester • Lab can be accessed in times other than regular lab • Lab reports are due one week after each measurement • The report will be peer reviewed by someone out of your team • Review comments are due the week after  Will be reflected into the lab grade • Lab score will be 15% of the total PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  30. Evaluation Policy • Two Term Exams: 15 % each  30% • Lab Score: 15% • Final Semester project paper: 20% • 10 minute Project oral presentation: 10% • Homework: 15% • Quizzes: 10% • Extra Credit: 10% • Consists of random attendances, colloquium participation, workshop participation and other opportunities PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

  31. In This Class • You will learn • Frontier physics and its history • Building blocks of matters are • How matters interact • The current theories that predict the nature • The experimental techniques to verify and test these theories • How we can make our lives better by establishing good theories • You are strongly encouraged to work together • One learns enormously talking to others • This is not going to be a stroll in the park…. • You will earn your mark and feel total fulfillment!! • But most importantly… We will have a lot of FUN!!!! PHYS 3446, Fall 2006 Jae Yu

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