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6. Organizational Behavior core concepts. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Organizational Behavior, Core Concepts. Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Groups and Teamwork: How Groups Work and How to Lead Them. Learning Objectives. Describe stages of group development

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Organizational Behavior

core concepts


Organizational Behavior, Core Concepts

Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Groups and Teamwork: How Groups Work and How to Lead Them

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Describe stages of group development
  • Contrast roles and norms, and give four reasons why norms are enforced in organizations
  • Explain how a work group becomes a team, and identify five teamwork competencies
learning objectives4
Learning Objectives
  • Summarize how managers can build trust
  • Describe self-managed teams and virtual teams
  • Identify symptoms of groupthink and social loafing and the ways to guard against them
fundamentals of group behavior
Fundamentals of Group Behavior
  • Group
    • two or more freely interacting people with shared norms and goals and a common identity
formal and informal groups
Formal and Informal Groups
  • Formal group
    • formed by the organization.
  • Informal group
    • formed by friends
functions of formal groups
Functions of Formal Groups

Organizational Functions 1. Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals. 2. Generate new or creative ideas and solutions. 3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts. 4. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments. 5. Implement complex decisions. 6. Socialize and train newcomers.

functions of formal groups8
Functions of Formal Groups

Individual Functions

1. Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation.

2. Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity.

3. Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality.

4. Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness.

5. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems.

group development
Group Development

Stage 1: Forming

  • Group members tend to be uncertain and anxious about their roles, whose in charge and the group’s goals
  • Mutual trust is low
group development11
Group Development

Stage 2: Storming

  • Time of testing
  • Individuals try to determine how they fit into the power structure
  • Procrastination may occur
group development12
Group Development

Stage 3: Norming

  • Questions about authority and power are resolved through unemotional, matter-of-fact group discussion
  • Group cohesiveness – “we feeling” binding group members together
group development13
Group Development

Stage 4: Performing

  • Activity focused on solving task problems
  • Climate of open communication, strong cooperation, and lots of helping behavior
group development14
Group Development

Stage 5: Adjourning

  • Work is done
  • Time to move on to other things
group member roles
Group Member Roles
  • Roles
    • expected behaviors for a given position
  • Task roles
    • task-oriented group behavior
    • Keep the group on track
  • Maintenance roles
    • relationship-building group behavior
    • Keep the group together
  • Norms
    • shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guide social behavior
  • Ostracism
    • rejection by other group members
how norms are developed
How Norms are Developed
  • Explicit statements by supervisors or co-workers
  • Critical events in the group’s history
  • Primacy
  • Carryover behaviors from past situations

What is a small group with complementary skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for common purpose?

  • Group
  • Huddle
  • Team
  • Platoon
teams trust and teamwork
Teams, Trust, and Teamwork
  • Team
    • small group with complementary skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for common purpose, goals, and approach.
  • A group becomes a team when:
    • Leadership becomes a shared activity
    • Accountability shifts from strictly individual to both individual and collective
    • The group develops its own purpose or mission
    • Problem solving becomes a way of life, not a part-time activity
    • Effectiveness is measured by the group’s collective outcomes and products
developing teamwork competencies
Developing Teamwork Competencies
  • Helping the team understand its problem-solving situation
  • Helping the team get organized and measure its performance
  • Promoting a positive team environment
  • Handling conflict
  • Promoting one’s point of view appropriately
trust a key ingredient of teamwork

reciprocal faith in other’ intentions and behavior.

Trust: A Key Ingredient of Teamwork
three dimensions of trust
Three Dimensions of Trust
  • Overall trust
    • expecting fair play, the truth, and empathy
  • Emotional trust
    • having faith that someone will not misrepresent you to others or betray you
  • Reliableness
    • believing that promises and appointments will be kept and commitments met
how to build and maintain trust
How to Build and Maintain Trust
  • Communication
  • Support
  • Respect
  • Fairness
  • Predictability
  • Competence
self managed teams
Self-Managed Teams
  • Self-managed teams
    • groups of employees granted administrative oversight for their work
  • Cross-functionalism
    • team made up of technical specialists from different areas
effectiveness of self managed teams
Effectiveness of Self Managed Teams
  • Have a positive effect on productivity
  • Have a positive effect on specific attitudes relating to self-management
  • No significant effect on general attitudes
  • No significant effect on absenteeism or turnover

What type of team uses information technology to allow group members in different locations to conduct business?

  • Psychic team
  • Virtual team
  • Fundamental team
  • Internet team
virtual teams
Virtual Teams
  • Virtual team
    • information technology allows group members in different locations to conduct business.
threats to group and team effectiveness
Threats to Group and Team Effectiveness
  • Groupthink
    • Janis’s term for cohesive in-group’s unwillingness to realistically view alternatives.

Read an article on groupthink

threats to group and team effectiveness33
Threats to Group and Team Effectiveness
  • Symptoms of groupthink
    • Invulnerability
    • Inherent morality
    • Rationalization
    • Stereotyped views of opposition
    • Self-censorship
    • Illusion of unanimity
    • Peer pressure
    • Mindguards
social loafing
Social Loafing
  • Social Loafing
    • decrease in individual effort as group size increases
reasons for social loafing
Reasons for Social Loafing
  • Equity of effort
  • Loss of personal accountability
  • Motivational loss due to sharing of rewards
  • Coordination loss as more people perform the task