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FALCON. Management and Monitoring. Introduction. Rudi Schlösser, CTO Email: schloesser@atecom.com Customer Support Email: support@atecom.com Additional Information WWW: www.atecom.com FTP: ftp.atecom.com/pub. Agenda. Technolgies PDH, SDH, and ATM MPEG and DVB-ASI FALCON

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falcon

FALCON

Management and Monitoring

introduction
Introduction
  • Rudi Schlösser, CTO
    • Email: schloesser@atecom.com
  • Customer Support
    • Email: support@atecom.com
  • Additional Information
    • WWW: www.atecom.com
    • FTP: ftp.atecom.com/pub
agenda
Agenda
  • Technolgies
    • PDH, SDH, and ATM
    • MPEG and DVB-ASI
  • FALCON
    • System Architecture
      • General Aspects
      • Components
    • Management
      • Boot Monitor
      • Firmware
      • Configuration
      • Monitoring
    • Troubleshooting
please
Please...

Cry and stop me, if there are any questions and more details are needed.

There are no stupid questions, but only stupid answers

Let‘s skip over parts already known, there‘s never enough time

signal chain
Signal Chain

MPEG Compressed Video

  • Compression (Source to MPEG-TS)
    • MPEG compression, Multiplexing
  • Network Adaptation (MPEG-TS to ATM, IP, …)
    • Encapsulation / De-Encapsulation, Clock Recovery
  • Decompression / Modulation (MPEG-TS back to Source)
network technologies
Network Technologies
  • PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy)
  • SDH / SONET (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy / Optical Networks)
  • ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
  • SONET NG (SONET Next Generation)
    • RPR (Residual Packet Ring)
    • GFP (Generic Framing Procedure)
  • MPLS
  • Ethernet
  • IP, UDP, RTP, …
network stacks
Network Stacks

ISO

ATM

SONET NG

IP

pdh plesiochronous digital hierarchy
PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
  • Different Standards by ITU and ANSI
  • Multiplexing of 2.048 Mbps (ITU) or 1.558 Mbps (ANSI) signals
  • Based on Line Switching
  • Supports Add & Drop functionality
  • No synchronous network clock
  • Operation & Maintenance on Section Level (OAM F1)
sdh synchronous digital hierarchy
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
  • Similar Standards by ITU and ANSI
  • Multiplexing of 2.048 Mbps and 1.558 Mbps based signals
  • Based on Line Switching incl. Protection Switching (< 50ms)
  • Supports Add & Drop functionality
  • Synchronous network clock
  • Operation & Maintenance on Section, Line and Path Level (OAM F1..F3)
sdh oam flow
SDH OAM Flow

SDH OAM (Operation & Maintenance) Flow

atm asynchronous transfer mode
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
  • Enables parallel Transport of video, audio, telephony and data over one network.
  • Runs on top of PDH, SDH, dark fiber
  • Asynchronous, no common clock
  • 53 Byte Cell based, high granularity, low delay
    • 5 Byte Header, 48 Byte Payload (~11% overhead)
  • Circuit Switching on VP (Virtual Path) and VC (Virtual Connection)
  • Guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) and scalable Bandwidth
  • Supports different Adaptation Layer (AAL) for service mapping
  • Operation & Maintenance on VP (F4) and VC (F5) level
atm cell structure
ATM Cell Structure

ATM Cell

ATM Cell Header

synchronization atm cell delineation
Synchronization ATM Cell Delineation
  • Receiver must find the start of an ATM Cell to synchronize to the received Cell Stream
  • Procedure:
    • Receive 4 Byte and calculate the HEC
    • Compare calculated HEC with next received Byte
    • Lock after 3 matches in 53 Byte distance, otherwise start from scratch
    • In locked state single mismatch will cause a LOCD (Loss of Cell Delineation)
  • The link must be constantly filled with ATM cells, even if no User data is to be transferred. Stuffing done by IDLE or UNASSIGNED Cells (VPI = 0, VCI = 0).
vc and vp
VC and VP

VC (Virtual Channel)

VP (Virtual Path)

Bundles multiple (up to 65.535) VCs with the same VPI

Fast re-routing

Multiple VPs with individual Bandwidth on a single physical Link

Link sharing by different customers

  • Each service is mapped to an dedicated VC
  • A VC is identified by its VPI/VCI pair
  • The VPI/VCI pair must be unique on a physical link
  • Point-to-Point (P2P) and Point-to-Multipoint (P2MP)
  • Individual QoS and Bandwidth per VC
reserved vpi vci values
Reserved VPI/VCI Values

The VCI values below 32 are reserved for special functions and shouldn’t be used for user services

aal atm adaptation layer
AAL ATM Adaptation Layer
  • The AAL defines, how user data is mapped to ATM cells
  • An AAL consists of two sublayers
    • CS: Convergence Sublayer
    • SAR: Segmentation & Reassembly
  • Four AAL types are defined
    • AAL1: Services with constant bit rate, isochronous timing i.e. Video, Audio, Circuit Emulation
    • AAL2: Services with variable bit rate, isochronous timing i.e. Video Conferencing
    • AAL3/4: Services with variable packet size, i.e. data
    • AAL5: Services variable packet size, i.e. data
slide26
AAL1

48 Byte ATM Cell Payload

SN

  • For bit streams with constant bit rate (E1/T1, DVB-ASI, …)
  • 3 bit Sequence numbering (SN) plus Sequence Number Protection (SNP)
  • 47 Byte payload

Data stream with constant bit rate

SAR

47 Byte Payload

3 Bit

5 Bit

CS

SNP

47 Byte Payload

Cell Header

aal1 fec forward error correction
AAL1 FEC Forward Error Correction
  • 4 Byte RS (Reed Solomon Code) for every 124 Byte data resulting in ~3.2% overhead
  • Byte Interleaving matrix 128 by 48
    • Spreading of block errors (cell losses)
      • Write data row by row, send column by column
      • Receive data column by column, read out row by row
  • Error Correction Capabilities
    • Up to 4 consecutive lost cells in each row
    • 2 lost cells and 1 bit error per row, if position of lost cells is known or
    • 2 bit errors per row
slide28
AAL5
  • For data with variable packet size (Ethernet, IP, …)
  • 65.536 Byte max. packet size
  • 8 Byte trailer with original length and CRC32 over the entire PDU

Data packet with 1 to 65.535 Bytes

SAR

48 Byte

48 Byte

n Byte

1 Byte

1 Byte

2 Byte

4 Byte

UU

CPI

Length

CRC32

n Byte

Stuffing

Trailer

CS

Hdr

48 Byte

Hdr

48 Byte

Hdr

48 Byte

mpeg ts transport stream
MPEG-TS Transport Stream
  • Multiplex of ESs (Elementary Streams, like video, audio, data, …) identified by its PID (Packet ID)
  • SI (Service Information) describes content of the TS
  • Segmented into packets of 188 Byte
  • Each packet starts with 0x47
  • Second Byte contains control information, like TEI
  • Constant Bitrate is achieved by inserting NULL packets (PID 8191)
mpeg ts si service information
MPEG-TS SI Service Information

PAT (PID 0)

NIT PID

NIT (PID 16)

PMT # 1 PID

PMT #1

PMT # 2 PID

ES #1 PID

Video

ES #2 PID

Audio 1

PMT # n PID

CAT (PID 1)

ES #n PID

Data

SDT (PID 17)

PMT #n

EIT (PID 18)

ES #1 PID

Video

TDT (PID 20)

ES #2 PID

Audio

ES #n PID

Data

dvb asi asynchronous serial interface
DVB-ASI Asynchronous Serial Interface
  • Standard interface for transport of MPEG-TS
  • Serial (Coax 75Ohm) interface with 270MHz carrier signal (compatible to SDI) and up to 300m reach
  • 8B/10B coding
  • Supports 16 Byte Reed-Solomon Error Correction
  • Byte and packet mode
mpeg ts over atm aal1
MPEG-TS over ATM AAL1
  • TS packet size is adopted to ATM AAL1
    • 188 Byte TS-Packets fit exactly into 4 ATM Cells
      • Divide TS packet into 4 blocks of 47 Byte as AAL1 payload
    • 31 TS packets fit exactly into the AAL1 FEC matrix
      • FEC matrix must start with 0x47 (TS sync Byte)
      • 204 Byte TS packet size not supported
        • Strip off MPEG-RS before mapping
  • Receiver must perform adaptive clock recovery (ACR)
    • Accuracy: 0.2ppm
    • Max. Drift: 0.0027ppm/s
mpeg over atm aal5
MPEG over ATM AAL5
  • Previously recommended by ANSI
    • No specialized SAR required
    • New traffic type VBRrt (Variable bit rate, real-time)
    • Recommendation changed to AAL1 for professional services
  • 2 TS packets plus 8 Byte trailer are mapped to 8 ATM cells
    • No stuffing required
    • Same overhead as with AAL1 without FEC
  • No error correction scheme
    • Single ATM cell loss causes loss of min. 2 TS packets
falcon installation
FALCON Installation
  • Don‘t block air inlet (bottom) or outlet (top)
  • Don‘t use mounting brackets (covering Slot #13)
  • Use external 1RU fan unit instead

0 & 1

2 & 3

4..11

12 & 13

internal data distribution
Internal Data Distribution
  • ATM Cells received by the Network Interfaces are broadcasted to
    • both Controller Cards
    • all service cards
  • ATM cells from Controller- and Service-Cards are always send to a Network interface (bps-0 to Slot #12, bps-1 to Slot #13)
    • VCCs on Service- and Controller Cards must be unique per network interface
  • No traffic relation between service cards and/or controller cards:
user configuration
User Configuration
  • The configuration reflects the SNMP MIB tree
    • The configuration stays valid after a firmware upgrade
    • Full SNMP support is easy to achieve
  • Central database runs on the Controller. Databases on the individual cards are mapped to the central database dynamically.
  • The configuration is always stored on the particular card
    • Pre-configuration of a card is possible.
    • The card boots up with it‘s local stored configuration.
    • No controller card is required
slide43
PSUs
  • Hot-swap and Hot-plug
  • Load Balancing
  • AC: 100V~to 250V~, 50Hz to 60Hz, auto-sense
  • DC: -32V= to -76=
  • Mixed operation possible
  • Indications:
    • OK: Primary power
    • Failure: Overload

ATTENTION: DC-PSU is not protected against polarity reversal

common card controls
Common Card Controls
  • Console (RS232)
    • Baudrate 115k
    • 8N1, no handshake
  • Hot-Swap (HS) LED
    • Lights blue, when the card is powerded down (hot-swappable)
  • Status (OK) LED
    • Constant red: booting
    • Constant green: operational
    • Red Blinking: out0 alarm active

Console

Hot-Swap LED

Status LED

Throw-out

Handle

controller card
Controller Card
  • Can be inserted to Slot #2 and #3
  • Hot swap and hot plug
  • Central configuration and monitoring
    • SNMP agent
    • Web server
  • Not required for System operation
  • Interfaces
    • 2 * 10/100BaseT Ethernet
    • RS232 (115k, 8N1)
    • 5 * Contact Closures
    • 4 * Digital Input
  • Supports IPoA and Ethernet Bridging

Digital Inputs

eth0

eth1

Contact Closures

Console

Throw-out

Handle

network interfaces
Network Interfaces
  • Can be inserted to Slot #12 and Slot #13
  • Hot swap and hot plug
  • Physical Interface carried out as pluggable module
    • E3/DS3, STM-1 electrical / optical, STM-4 optical
  • Reference clock input and output
  • Indications:
    • SIGNAL: Carrier detect
      • green: OK
      • red: no carrier
    • ERROR: Any error on the physical layer
    • TX/RX: ATM cells are send/received

Physical

Interface

RX/TX LED

Status LEDs

Ref. Clock

Console

Throw-out

Handle

atm tributary interfaces
ATM Tributary Interfaces
  • Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11
  • Same as Network Interfaces
  • Additional:
    • Quad E3/DS3 interface
    • Traffic shaping and policing per VCC (max. 2048 VCCs)
    • Automatic Protection Switching per VCC based on CLIP (Cell Loss Integration Period) configurable in n * 20us (max. 1024 VCCs)

Physical

Interface

RX/TX LED

Status LEDs

Ref. Clock

Console

Throw-out

Handle

dvb asi input
DVB-ASI Input
  • Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11
  • Hot swap & hot plug
  • Two ASI inputs with integrated A-B switch
  • Active monitor output (configurable)
  • Byte and Packet mode, 188 and 204 Byte packet size
  • TS rate from 800kbps to 160Mbps (CBR)
  • TS rate measurement, switch off if configured rate is exceeded
  • AAL1 or AAL1 FEC (configurable)
  • 2 ATM VCCs to Slot #12 and Slot #13, individual configurable
  • Indications:
    • STAT: Input signal status
    • ACT: Active input

Input 1

Status LEDs

Input 2

Status LEDs

Monitor Output

Console

Throw-out

Handle

quad dvb asi input
Quad DVB-ASI-Input
  • Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11
  • Hot swap & hot plug
  • 4 independent ASI channels
  • Active monitor output (configurable)
  • Byte and Packet mode, 188 and 204 Byte packet size
  • TS rate from 800kbps to 213Mbps (CBR)
  • TS rate measurement, switch off if configured rate is exceeded
  • AAL1 or AAL1 FEC (configurable)
  • 2 ATM VCCs per channel to Slot #12 and Slot #13, individual configurable
  • Indications:
    • STAT: Input signal status
    • ACT: Active input

Input 1

Input 2

Input 3

Input 4

Monitor Output

Console

Throw-out

Handle

dvb asi output
DVB-ASI Output
  • Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11
  • Hot swap & hot plug
  • 2 ATM VCCs from Slot #12 and Slot #13 with APS, individual configurable
  • AAL1 or AAL1 FEC (configurable)
  • Adaptive Clock Recovery
    • TS rate from 800kbps to 160Mbps (CBR)
    • Accuracy: 0.2ppm, Drift: 0.0027ppm/s
  • Two ASI outputs (same signal)
  • Byte and Packet mode, 188 and 204 Byte packet size (configurable)
  • TEI tagging for uncorrectable errors (configurable)
  • Indications:
    • STATUS: Output signal status

Output 1

Status LED

Output 2

Console

Throw-out

Handle

quad dvb asi output
Quad DVB-ASI Output
  • Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11
  • Hot swap & hot plug
  • 2 ATM VCCs per channel from Slot #12 and Slot #13 with APS, individual configurable
  • AAL1 or AAL1 FEC (configurable)
  • Adaptive Clock Recovery
    • TS rate from 800kbps to 213Mbps (CBR)
    • Accuracy: 0.2ppm, Drift: 0.0027ppm/s
  • Active monitor output (configurable)
  • Byte and Packet mode, 188 and 204 Byte packet size (configurable)
  • TEI tagging for uncorrectable errors (configurable)
  • Indications:
    • A/B: Active VCC (A = Slot 12, B = Slot 13)

Output 1

Output 2

Output 3

Output 4

Monitor Output

Console

Throw-out

Handle

dvb asi switch
DVB-ASI Switch
  • 2 DVB-ASI Inputs
  • Output protected by passive loop-through
    • 188/204 Byte, Byte- or Packet mode
  • 3 active monitor outputs (configurable)
  • Indications:
    • Inputs:
      • STAT (Input): Input signal status
      • ACT (Input): active input
    • Output:
      • TAG: TS packets with TEI received
      • SFN: Seamless mode
      • STAT: Output status
      • SYNC: Synchronization status

Input 1

Monitor 1

Input 2

Monitor 2

Output

Monitor 3

Status LEDs

Console

Throw-out

Handle

dvb asi switch1
DVB-ASI Switch
  • Input signals from different sources (i.e. redundant MUX):
    • Non-seamless switching on
      • LOS and LOF
      • Missing ES (Elementary Stream, PID repetition rate)
  • Input signals are identical (copies of the same source):
    • Seamless switching after synchronization of the input signals
    • Packet exchange of corrupted TS packets identified by
      • TEI (Transport Error Indicator)
      • MPEG-RS-Errors (204 Byte packets only)
quad e1 t1 ces
Quad E1/T1 CES
  • Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11
  • Hot swap & hot plug
  • 4 independent E1/T1 CES channels
  • Uni- or bi-directional operation
  • Unstructured mode, n * 64k under development
  • 2 ATM VCCs to/from Slot #12 and Slot #13 with APS in receive direction, individual configurable
  • E1/T1 Output Clock:
    • Looped E1/T1
    • Adaptive Clock Recovery
    • Network Clock
    • Internal reference clock

Ref. Clock

Channel 1 & 3

Channel 2 & 4

Console

Throw-out

Handle

ethernet bridge
Ethernet Bridge
  • Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11
  • Hot swap & hot plug
  • 10/100BaseT (auto-negotiation or fixed)
  • Point-to-Point Bridge (802.1q)
  • Support of VLAN-tagged frames
  • Multicast aware
  • STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)
  • Up to 16 ports (VCCs) with individual QoS
  • Indications:
    • LINK: Carrier detect
    • 100M: 100Mbps (off = 10Mbps)
    • RX/TX: Received / transmitted frames

Status LEDs

10/100BaseT

Console

Throw-out

Handle

boot process
Boot Process
  • Three stage boot
  • First stage Boot-Loader:
    • Fixed stored in ROM
    • Memory test, etc.
  • Second stage Boot-Loader
    • Hardware probing
    • Boot Monitor
    • Boot process will be interrupted here in case of a hardware problem
  • Third stage: UNIX
  • You can stop the boot process after the second stage boot, entering the boot monitor.
boot monitor1
Boot Monitor
  • Only accessible on the Console
  • Stop boot process by pressing any key
  • Prompt „ok“
  • Main Functions
    • Firmware Image Management
      • Firmware Download
      • Deletion of Firmware Images
    • Configuration Management
      • Save / Load
      • Delete (Factory Defaults)
boot monitor tftp configuration
Boot Monitor TFTP Configuration
  • Display of Configuration: printenv
  • Changing Configuration: setenv <Name> <Value>
  • TFTP Configuration:
    • Client-IP: Local IP-Address
    • Netmask: Local netmask
    • Server-IP: IP-Adress of the TFTP-Server
    • Gateway: IP-Address of the gateway to be used to reach the server (if any)
    • TFTP-Device:
      • Controller: eth0 or eth1
      • Service- and Network Cards: bpe-0 or bpe-1Gateway must be configured to 169.254.0.2 (bpe-0) or 169.254.1.3 (bpe-1)
user configuration1
User Configuration
  • Command „cfgclear“
    • Factory Defaults
    • Reverts all settings to default (incl. Password)
  • Command „cfgsave <Filename>“
    • Save the configuration to a TFTP-Server
  • Command „cfgload <Filename>“
    • Load a configuration from a TFTP Server
  • Command „cfgdump“ list the SNMP configuration as a Hex-Dump (OID – Value pairs)
slide65

Firmware Images

  • Command „li [-d boot]“
    • Listing of installed firmware images
  • Command „ai [-d boot]“
    • Append a new firmware image
  • Command „ii [–d boot] [Number]“
    • Deletes the specified number of firmware images (starting with the latest installed image
  • ATTENTION: When deleting the last firmware image, installation of a new firmware image can be installed from the boot-monitor only.
management interfaces
Management Interfaces
  • CLI (Command Line Interface)
    • opsh (Operator Shell)
    • Telnet or Console (RS232, 115k, 8N1)
  • HTTP
    • Any browser with XML, XSLT and CSS support i.e. IE, Firefox, Safari, etc.
  • SNMP
    • SNMPv1, SNMPv2c and SNMPv3
    • Access to an individual card by using the associated CONTEXT (SNMPv3) or user-configured COMMUNITY (SNMPv1/SNMPv2).
cli opsh
CLI „opsh“
  • Access to configuration, status information and statistics
  • [TAB] expansion of command
  • Command history (up/down keys)
  • Commands can be passed as command line parameter opsh –c “<Command>”
cli cmdsh
CLI „cmdsh“
  • Access to all information as via SNMP
    • Walk, Get, Set, …
  • Access to values not accessible within “opsh”
  • Usefull for debugging
  • Tool for integration of the system into SNMP based management systems
initial network setup
Initial Network Setup
  • Access via SNMP and Web-Interface require valid network configuration
    • bootp
    • Manual configuration over Console (opsh)
      • Required Parameter
        • IP-Address and Netmask
        • Default Gateway / static routes
      • Syntax:

> net interface eth0 addr x.x.x.x/z up

> net gateway y.y.y.y

changing network settings
Changing Network Settings
  • Because different settings (IP-Adress & Gateway) must probably be changed at a time
    • use local console, or
    • use a script within a Telnet session
      • opsh –c „<Command>“
  • Example:

#!/bin/bashopsh –c „net interface eth0 addr 10.2.0.3/2 up“

opsh –c „net gateway 10.2.0.1“

firmware management
Firmware Management
  • Each card has it’s own store for installed firmware images
    • Different versions can be used within a system
    • To ease troubleshooting one firmware version within a system is recommended
  • Multiple Images can be installed (Number depends on card type)
    • It‘s always possible to switch back to an old version
  • Controller Cards have seperate boot- and a system images
    • Both, boot- and system image must have the same version
  • Always the latest installed image will become active after a reboot
    • Switching to an older firmware image by downloading and activating it
  • A newly installed image must be activated
    • Activation will cause a reboot of the particular card
    • Scheduled activation possible
firmware download
Firmware Download
  • Download from a TFTP-, FTP- or HTTP-Server
  • Controller Cards:
    • > firmware local update boot “<Protocol>://<Server-IP>/[Path/]<Filename>”
    • > firmware local update system “<Protocol>://<Server-IP>/[Path/]<Filename>”
    • > firmware local update activate
  • Service- and Network Cards:
    • > firmware slot-xx update system “<Protocol>://<Server-IP>/[Path/]<Filename>”
    • > firmware slot-xx update activate
  • Checking the progress of the download
    • > firmware <local|slot-xx> update show
snmp traps
SNMP-Traps
  • Each Interface generates up/down Traps on changes of the operational status
    • up – The Interface up and running
    • down – The Interface isn‘t work correctly
  • Each change in the alarm status generates a SNMP Trap
    • One event can cause multiple traps
    • Trap generation user-configurable per alarm
    • Filtering by severity
    • User-defined alarms in combination with alarm filtering can be used for alarm correlation
alarms
Alarms
  • User-configurable severity
    • DEBUG (=off), INFO, NOTICE, WARNING, ERROR, CRITICAL, EMERGENCY, ALERT
    • Default = INFO
  • User-configurable alarm message
  • Set-Delay to suppress short events
  • Clear-Delay to suppress fast repeating events
  • Trap generation can be activated/deactivated for each alarm individually
user defined alarms
User-defined Alarms
  • Combination of other alarms by the logical operations „and“, „or“, „xor“ and „not“
  • Example: „Two Input Signals in1 and in2“:
    • Loss of one input only: Result: The service is still available, loss of redundancy

Condition: in1 xor in2, Severity: WARNING

    • Loss of both Inputs: Result: Service failure

Condition: in1 and in2, Severity: CRITICAL

common alarms
Common Alarms
  • Hot-Swap (hs0)
    • The Hot-Swap switch inside the throw-out handle has been activated (Card exchange or reboot).
  • Temperature Alarms (temp#)
    • The max. operational temperature of one of the sensors is exceeded. The number of sensors depends on the card type.
    • The card will switch-off itself in case of a further increase of the temperature by 10°C. Reactivation of the card by using the hot-swap switch.
  • NVRAM (pwr16)
    • Backup battery voltage is too low. The configuration of the card will get lost in case of a power fail.
  • Card Alarm (out0)
    • User-defined condition
cpu alarms
CPU-Alarms
  • PSU Alarms (ps0, ps1, fan0, fan1)
    • ps<0|1> - Failure of the power source
    • fan<0|1> - Overload / Temperature
  • Backplane Alarms (bpXX, XX = Slot-Number)
    • The backplane alarms are activated, when alarm “out0” is activated on a card or in case of a reboot of the card.
  • Input Alarms (in0..in3)
    • Status of the digital Inputs, i.e. used for monitoring of the external fan unit
    • User-defined Output Alarms (out1..out5) controlling the contact closures
cpu interfaces
CPU Interfaces

FALCON with redundant CPUs

Alarms

los2 - Carrier Loss eth0, Router down or LAN cable problem

los3 - Hardware defect

los4 - Redundant CPU has been removed

management connections
Management Connections
  • Communication between CPU and Service- and Network-Cards uses internal Ethernet-Links (CPU: bph-xx, Service- or Network-Card: bpe-0 or bpe-1)
  • Failure of the internal Management Connection
    • Results
      • Card isn’t displayed anymore in the “opsh” and the Web-Interface
      • No impact on the active service of the card
    • Possible reasons:
      • Ethernet (check Link-Status, i.e. ping or Telnet)
      • Central or local database (dbrestart)

Internal Management Connections

sdh interfaces
SDH Interfaces
  • SDH = Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
  • Hierarchies STM-1, STM-4, STM-16, ...
  • STM-1 has 155.52 Mbit/s rate incl. all Overhead
  • Max. 353.207 ATM Cells/s (~132Mbit/s User data)
  • Physical Interface
    • Electrical 75 Ohm, Connector DIN 1.6/5.6, max. 100 Meter
    • Optical, Connector Duplex-SC, up to 80km
      • ATTENTION: No external loop on L1.2 without attenuation
sdh oam flow1
SDH OAM Flow

SDH OAM (Operation & Maintenance) Flow

pdh interfaces
PDH Interfaces
  • PDH = Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
  • Hierarchies: E1, E2, E3 and E4 or T1, DS2 und DS3
  • E3 has a rate of 34.368 Mbit/s incl. all overhead
  • Framing: G.832 or G.751, Default G.832
  • ATM-Cell-Mapping: ADM or PLCP, Default ADM
  • Max. 80.000 ATM-Cells/s (~30.08Mbit/s user data)
  • Physical Interface
    • Elektrical 75Ohm, Connector BNC, max. 150 Meter
slide92
ATM
  • ATM = Asynchronous Transfer Mode
  • PDH and SDH are used as transport layer
  • Cell-based, Cell size is 53 Byte,
    • 5 Byte header, 48 Byte data
  • Connection oriented
    • VPI/VCI identifies all Cells of a data stream.
  • For synchronization (Cell Delineation) cell are constantly send
    • Cells without payload (Idle / Unassigned) have a VPI/VCI value of 0.0
network interfaces1
Network Interfaces

Transmit Direction

Receive Direction

dvb asi input1
DVB-ASI Input

inloss<0|1> - Loss of the DVB-ASI carrier signal (270MHz)

ininv<0|1> - Invalid input signal (no MPEG-TS or too high TS rate)

nw0 - Reed-Solomon errors on input TS (204 Byte only)

swo0 - APS between the inputs

Alarms

quad dvb asi input1
Quad DVB-ASI Input

inloss<0..3> - Loss of DVB-ASI carrier (270MHz)

ininv<0..3> - Invalid input signal (no MPEG-TS or too high TS rate)

nw<0..3> - Reed-Solomon errors on input TS (204 Byte only)

Alarms

dvb asi output1
DVB-ASI Output

Alarms

  • inloss<0|1> - Loss of ATM input (no Cells received within the CLIP)
  • swo0 - APS between the ATM inputs
  • acr0 - Failure of the adaptive clock recovery
  • aal10 - AAL1 FEC errors (correctable and uncorrectable)
troubleshooting sdh
Troubleshooting SDH
  • Status of the physical Interface in case of local LOS

> atm ltm status

ATM LTM SONET STATUS:

SL INDEX SECTION LINE PATH ATM ..

12 atm-0 LOS,LOF,OOF AIS RDI,PLM LOCD

    • Fields „SECTION“, „LINE“ and „PATH“ MUST be empty
      • LOS – no carrier
      • LOF, OOF – invalid framing
      • Line AIS caused by local LOS
      • Path RDI, PLM caused by local Line AIS
      • ATM LOCD caused by local LOS
troubleshooting sdh1
Troubleshooting SDH
  • Status of the physical Interface in case of LOS on next Regenerator

> atm ltm status

ATM LTM SONET STATUS:

SL INDEX SECTION LINE PATH ATM ..

12 atm-0 RDI AIS

    • Fields „SECTION“, „LINE“ and „PATH“ MUST be empty
      • Line RDI caused by remote LOS
      • Path AIS caused by local Line RDI
troubleshooting sdh2
Troubleshooting SDH
  • Status of the physical Interface in case of LOS at the far end

> atm ltm status

ATM LTM SONET STATUS:

SL INDEX SECTION LINE PATH ATM ..

12 atm-0 RDI

    • Fields „SECTION“, „LINE“ and „PATH“ MUST be empty
      • Path RDI caused by far end LOS, LOF or OOF
troubleshooting sdh3
Troubleshooting SDH
  • Physical Statistics

> atm ltm statistics

SL INDEX SECTION-OOF SECTION-BIP LINE-BIP LINE-REI PATH-BIP PATH-REI

12 atm-0 202 13697 42038 91377770 15225 4628333

    • SECTION-OOF – local OOF events
    • SECTION-BIP, LINE-BIP & PATH-BIP bit errors in received overhead sections
    • LINE-REI & PATH-REI bit errors in line and path overhead reported by remote end
troubleshooting atm
Troubleshooting ATM
  • ATM Statistics

> atm ltm statistics

ATM LTM ATM STATISTICS:

SL INDEX LOCD HEC-CORRECTABLE HEC-UNCORR..

12 atm-0 256 1973 2021

    • Correctable HEC Errors: single bit error
    • Uncorrectable HEC Errors: multiple bit errors
    • Uncorrectable HEC errors will cause LOCD
troubleshooting atm1
Troubleshooting ATM

Bit error ratios on the physical layer of up to 10-4 can be corrected by AAL1 FEC (DVB-ASI only).

If only one direction is failing, only bi-directional services will fail. Uni-directional service (ASI, E1/T1) are probably not affected.

No errors in the statistics of the network interface does not guarantee error free transmission, because user data isn‘t checked.

troubleshooting asi input
Troubleshooting ASI-Input
  • Checking the Status of the ASI-Ports

> video slot-04 port show

VIDEO PORT INPUTSL NAME ... ADMIN-STATUS OPER-STATUS04 dai-0-0 up down

> video slot-04 port status

VIDEO PORT INPUTSL NAME STATUS BITRATE MPEG-TYPE-DETECT 04 dai-0-0 LOS,LOF 0 none

    • No DVB-ASI input signal detected (LOS)
troubleshooting asi input1
Troubleshooting ASI-Input
  • Checking the Status of the ASI-Interface

> video slot-04 interface show

VIDEO INTERFACE INPUTSL NAME ... ADMIN-STATUS OPER-STATUS04 mt-0 up down

> video slot-04 interface status

VIDEO MPEG STATISTICSSL NAME DISCARDED-PACKETS ... 04 mt-0 109527

    • The TS-Rate exceeds the configured limit
troubleshooting asi input2
Troubleshooting ASI-Input
  • Checking the Status of the ATM VCCs

> video slot-04 link show

VIDEO LINK INPUTSL NAME ... ADMIN-STATUS OPER-STATUS04 avc-0-0 up up

> video slot-04 link status

SL NAME ... TX-CELLS DROPPED-CELLS04 avc-0-0 1282022 156398

    • The ATM link rate of the network interface is exceeded (overbooking)
troubleshooting asi output
Troubleshooting ASI-Output
  • Checking the Status of the ATM VCCs

> video slot-05 link show

VIDEO LINK OUTPUTSL NAME ... ADMIN-STATUS OPER-STATUS05 avc-0-0 up down

> video slot-05 link status

SL NAME ... CELL-LOSS-STATUS RX-CELLS05 avc-0-0 true 5642894

    • No more ATM cells are received on the configured VCC.RX-Cells indicate, that cells were received in the past.
troubleshooting asi output1
Troubleshooting ASI-Output
  • Checking the Status of the Interface

> video slot-05 interface show

VIDEO INTERFACE OUTPUTSL NAME ... ADMIN-STATUS OPER-STATUS05 mt-0 up lower-layer-down

    • No data is being received from the ATM VCCs(lower-layer-down).
troubleshooting asi output2
Troubleshooting ASI-Output
  • Checking the Statistics of the AAL1 Statistics

> video slot-05 interface statistics

VIDEO AAL1 STATISTICSSL NAME LOST-CELLS MISINSERTED-CELLS ... 05 mt-0 1109 43

    • Lost Cells: single cell losses
    • Misinserted Cells: burst cell losses

> video slot-05 interface statistics

VIDEO AAL1 STATISTICSSL NAME ... FEC-CORRECTED FEC-UNCORRECTED 05 mt-0 17312 894

    • FEC Corrected: no errors in MPEG-TS
    • FEC Uncorrected: MPEG-TS affected by errors (TEI)
troubleshooting asi output3
Troubleshooting ASI-Output
  • Checking the Statistics of the Adaptive Clock Recovery

> video slot-05 interface statistics

VIDEO INTERFACE STATISTICS OUTPUTSL NAME ... RESTARTS BUF-UNDERFLOWS BUF-OVERFLOWS ... 05 mt-0 12 10 1

    • Restarts: Total number of ACR resets
    • Buffer Underflows: Caused by interruption in the received cell stream
    • Buffer Overflow: Caused by changes in the TS rate

> video slot-05 interface statistics

VIDEO INTERFACE STATISTICS OUTPUTSL NAME ... FEC-CORRECTED FEC-UNCORRECTED 05 mt-0 17312 894

    • FEC Corrected: no errors in MPEG-TS
    • FEC Uncorrected: MPEG-TS affected by errors (TEI)
general requirements
General Requirements
  • UNI signaling is only supported by AF-SYS-IB controller cards
  • On the controller card(s), the network interface(s) and the DVB-ASI service cards firmware version 2.9.x must be used
  • The FALCON must be connected to an ATM Switch supporting UNI 4.0 and ILMI
redundancy
Redundancy
  • Redundant network interfaces
    • Each network interface gets its own ATM address
    • When both interfaces are connected to the same switch the ESI of the network interfaces MUST differ.
  • Redundant controller cards
    • Network interface in Slot #12 is served by Slot #2
    • Network interface in Slot #13 is served by Slot #3
    • Controller monitor each other. In case of a failure of one controller the remaing takes over control of ILMI and SVCs for Service Cards
atm address formats
ATM Address Formats
  • The FALCON supports NSAP and E.164 numbering plans. The NSAP address format is prefered.
  • The selector Byte is used to select a particular service:
    • Upper Nibble: Slot
    • Lower Nibble: Channel
  • Alternatively an ATM Subaddress can be used:
    • 1st Byte: Slot
    • 2nd Byte: Channel
    • 3rd Byte: Subchannel (structured E1/T1 only)
slide116
ILMI
  • ILMI = Integrated Local Management Interface
  • SNMP based protocol between ATM switch and Enddevice
  • Main functionality is the Automatic Address Registration
    • NetPrefix of the ATM switch + ESI of the Enddevice build the ATM Endsystem Address (NSAP)
  • Changes of the ESI result in a new Endsystem Address for a device.
    • ESI is preconfigured to a unique value
    • In case of hardware exchange the ESI must be reconfigured
ilmi implementation
ILMI Implementation
  • The ILMI daemon (ilmid) is running on the controller card
  • Single Controller Card
    • Controller serves both network interfaces
  • Redundant Controller Cards
    • Slot #2 is serving Slot #12
    • Slot #3 is serving Slot #13
    • The controllers are monitoring the state of each other.
      • In case of a failure the remaining controller takes over control
  • For accessibility by both controller cards the ESI is stored on the network interfaces.
slide118
IPoA
  • First a LIS (Logical IP Subnet) must be created

> net ipoa lis create <IP-Address/Maskbits>

    • This creates an interface “ipoa#” with the given IP address
    • Multiple LISs can be defined
  • ATMARP entries provide the mapping of VPI/VCI (PVC) or ATM-Address (SVC) to an IP-Address:
    • PVC Entry: > net ipoa config-pvc create bps-<0|1> <VPI> <VCI>
    • SVC Entry: > net ipoa config-svc create bps-<0|1> nsap <ATM-Addr>
  • For IPoA the Selector must be set to “0x00”
ipoa using pvcs
IPoA using PVCs
  • ATMARP Requests are send immediately over configured PVCs to resolve remote IP address
  • PVCs can be configured for both interfaces in parallel
    • Can lead to a mismatch in the mapping PVC <-> IP
    • Solved by next ATMARP request
    • Redundant controllers: VPI/VCI must be unique per network interface.
  • IP packet with unresolved destination IP will trigger ATMARP request on all unresolved PVCs
ipoa using svcs
IPoA using SVCs
  • Static Remote IP address can be assigned to a SVC
  • IP packet with unresolved destination IP will trigger Setup of all unresolved SVCs
  • Single Controller:
    • SVCs can be configured for both network interfaces (bsp-0 and bps-1) in parallel
  • Redundant Controllers:
    • On Slot #2 SVCs using bps-1 are ignored
    • On Slot #3 SVCs using bps-0 are ignored
dvb asi using svcs
DVB-ASI using SVCs
  • SVCs are always originated on DVB-ASI Input channels to support P2MP connections
  • The interface “mt-x” must be configured (Bitrate, AAL1-FEC) and the link (avc-x-0 or avc-x-1) must be switched off before the first SVC is established
  • By default SVC redial is used, it can be disabled
  • The ATM address can use addressing by the selector Byte or by the ATM subaddress
  • On ASI-Output channels the acceptance for SVC connections must be enabled explicitly