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Tree thinking in scholarship biology. Rob Cruickshank Department of Ecology Lincoln University.

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tree thinking in scholarship biology

Tree thinking in scholarship biology

Rob Cruickshank

Department of Ecology

Lincoln University

slide3

“Just as beginning students in geography need to be taught how to read maps, so beginning students in biology should be taught how to read trees and to understand what trees communicate”Robert O’Hara 1997

what is a phylogenetic tree2
What is a phylogenetic tree?

“The most important diagram in biology”

Steve Jones

2009

1837

slide17
Which of the four phylogenies shown below depicts a different pattern of relationships to the others?

2

slide18
Which of the four phylogenies shown below depicts a different pattern of relationships to the others?

3

slide20

If you were to add a trout to the phylogeny shown above, where would its lineage attach to the rest of the tree?

5

slide22
Which of the five letters in the phylogeny above corresponds to the most recent common ancestor of a mushroom and a sponge?

6

slide24

According to the phylogeny shown above, which of the following statements is true?

A A green alga is more closely related to a red alga than to a moss.

B A green alga is more closely related to a moss than to a red alga.

C A green alga is equally related to a red alga and a moss.

D A green alga is related to a red alga, but is not related to a moss.

7

slide25

According to the phylogeny shown above, which of the following statements is true?

A A crocodile is more closely related to a lizard than to a bird.

B A crocodile is more closely related to a bird than to a lizard.

C A crocodile is equally related to a lizard and a bird.

D A crocodile is related to a lizard, but is not related to a bird.

8

slide26

According to the phylogeny shown above, which of the following statements is true?

A A seal is more closely related to a horse than to a whale.

B A seal is more closely related to a whale than to a horse.

C A seal is equally related to a horse and a whale.

D A seal is related to a whale, but is not related to a horse.

9

slide28

In the phylogeny shown above, assume that the ancestor had a long tail, ear flaps, external testes and fixed claws. Assuming all evolutionary changes are shown, what traits do sea lions have?A Long tail, ear flaps, external testes and fixed claws B Short tail, no ear flaps, external testes and fixed claws C Short tail, no ear flaps, abdominal testes and fixed claws D Short tail, ear flaps, abdominal testes and fixed claws E Long tail, ear flaps, abdominal testes and retractable claws

10

slide29

In the phylogeny shown above, assume that the ancestor was not a tree and did not have leaves or seeds. Assuming all evolutionary changes are shown, which of the tips is a tree without leaves?A LepidodendronD PsilotumB ClubmossE FernCOak

11

living organisms are not primitive
Living organisms are not primitive

“It is absurd to talk of one animal being higher than another”

Charles Darwin 1837

living organisms are not ancestors
Living organisms are not ancestors

Humans are not descended from chimpanzees, rather humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor that was neither a human nor a chimpanzee

slide41

Links

Tree thinking challenge

http://www.tree-thinking.org/publications.html#science310

Downloadable graphic image of the tree of life

http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/antisense/downloadfilestol.html