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Ab botany. A. Overview of Plants: All plants are multicellular, eukaryotic & contain chlorophyll inside of chloroplasts. 2. Plants (also called autotrophs or producers) trap energy from the sun by photosynthesis & store it in organic compounds. (remember).

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Ab botany

Ab botany

  • A. Overview of Plants:

  • All plants are multicellular, eukaryotic &

  • contain chlorophyll inside of chloroplasts.

2. Plants (also called autotrophs or producers)

trap energy from the sun by photosynthesis

& store it in organic compounds. (remember)

3. Heterotrophs or consumers get their energy

directly or indirectly from plants.Plants

also release oxygen needed by consumers.

4. Plants are very diverse & may be terrestrial

or aquatic.Kingdom Plantae is divided into

12 phyla or Divisions.More than 270,000

plant species have been identified.

Ab botany

B. Plant evolution

1.Plants evolved from green algae

Ab botany

2. Both algae & plants have chlorophyll a & b,

have cell walls made of cellulose, and

store energy as starch.

3. The First land plants had to develop

adaptations to scarcity of water & climate

changes (air temperature changes more

rapidly than water temperature).

4. The origin of vascular tissue (specialized

tissue for carrying food , water, & minerals)

was an evolutionary breakthrough in the

colonization of land.

Ab botany

5. plants have a two-generation life cycle

known as alternation of generations.

-This means that a plant exists in 2 forms: the

haploid generation is the gametophyte that

produces gametes; and the diploid generation

is the sporophyte that produces spores by


Ab botany

6. Most plants have vascular tissue (conducts

water and other nutrients). Nonvascular

plants are usually small and transfer

materials by osmosis and diffusion. Examples

include mosses and hornworts.

7. The earliest vascular plants reproduce

with spores instead of seeds. An example is

the fern.

Ab botany

8. Vascular plants with seeds can be divided

into two major groups:

a. Gymnosperms= plants with naked seeds.

-seeds do not develop in a fruit. Most

develop in a cone.

-examples – confiers (pines, spruces,

junipers) and ginkgos.

-gymnosperms are wind pollinated. Conifers

produce two cones: female (seed) cone and

male (pollen) cone.

Ab botany

b. Angiosperms – flowering plants.

-seeds are enclosed in fruit.

-flowers attract pollinators, ensure the

transfer of pollen to egg, and aid in

protecting seeps, pollen and egg.

-examples: roses, mustards, legumes, etc

Ab botany

9. Angiosperms are divided into two major


a. monocots- have a single cotyledon.

examples include grasses, lilies, corn

d. Dicots – have two cotyledons. Examples

include many shrubs, trees

Ab botany

10. Parts of a seed:

-seed coat - protection

-radicle – embryonic root

-plumule – immature leaf

-endosperm – fleshy inner tissue – for

nutrients (in beans, peanuts, etc. the

endosperm nutrients end up in the


Ab botany

12. The three basic parts of a plant are the

roots, shoots and leaves.

  • Roots function to anchor plants, absorb

  • water and minerals and some store

  • nutrients (carrots, sweet potatoes)

-roots grow at the tips. A great source

for cells undergoing mitosis.

Ab botany

b. Shoots (stems) – connect roots to leaves

and have vascular tissue for the transport

of nutrients, minerals and water. Shoots

also provide structural support for a


-vascular tissue -

  • xylem- carries water and minerals up

  • a plant. Water is cohesive and adhesive

  • allowing it to “climb” the xylem. Also

  • transpiration of water out the leaves

  • and absorption by roots provides a

  • constant movement of water.

Ab botany

2. Phloem – sugars and other organic

molecules move down through the phloem.

3. Other tissues (cork, bark, cambium)

provide strength and protection.

Ab botany

c. Leaves – the site for photosynthesis.

-a typical leaf has a petiole (stem) and a

leaf blade. The vascular system of the

shoot passes through the petiole into

the midrib (central vein)

-the upper epidermis of a leaf is coated with

awaxy layer of cutin. This helps keep

water in.

-within the leaf are layers of

photosynthesizing cells

-the lower epidermis has stomata (stomate =

singular). These are openings that allow

carbon dioxide in and allow water vapor