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Shelterbelt Maintenance May 2006 PowerPoint Presentation
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Shelterbelt Maintenance May 2006

Shelterbelt Maintenance May 2006

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Shelterbelt Maintenance May 2006

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  1. Shelterbelt Maintenance May 2006 André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  2. Main activities • Weed removal • Replacement of dead trees • Monitoring for insects and diseases • Protection against rodents and grazers • Pruning André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  3. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  4. Black walnut (4 years) Chemical weed removal Mowing It is important to remove all weeds around the base of the trees (1 square metre), particularly around hardwoods that require a lot of water. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  5. Glyphosate on either side of the mulch André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  6. Rototiller on either side of the mulch André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  7. Mowing on either side of the mulch André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  8. Mowing on either side of the mulch 3 times during the summer is usually sufficient to ensure proper start of growth. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  9. Replacement of dead trees André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  10. Phytosanitary inspection André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  11. Web site of interest (in French only) André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  12. Web site of interest André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  13. Protection against grazers • Physical barriers • Chemical repellents • Mowing on each side of the plastic mulch prevents rodents problems André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  14. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  15. Protection against deer browsing • Deer's diet and food selection slowly change over the course of the year from graze during the growing season to browse during the dormant season. There is no fixed timetable for this event, rather it's a slow transition meant to maximize the available food sources as dictated by the season. However, even when the grass is green and succulent, deer may still select the tender new growth of woody plants for food during the growing season. (source: http://www.ecostudies.org/lma_deer_resistance_strategies.html) André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  16. Protection against deer browsinghttp://www.ecostudies.org/lma_deer_resistance_strategies.html • You must plan on protecting certain plants during the warm months, typically with repellents, as physical barriers are not aesthetically appropriate for use during the growing season. • Have your physical barriers up and functioning after the first few killing frosts. If you are relying on repellents for dormant season protection, your spray program should likewise begin soon after the first killing frosts. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  17. Use of Repellentshttp://www.ecostudies.org/lma_deer_resistance_strategies.html • Test repellents that you plan to use during the growing season. We have witnessed considerable tissue damage on new, tender growth with certain repellents, especially ones which employ "hot sauces" and blood derivatives. Soap and egg-based repellents seem to be the least damaging to plants. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  18. Use of Repellents • Reapply repellents on a 3-week interval. Conditions must be optimum for spray applications. The temperature must be 40º F. or above for the complete drying time of the product, which can be all day in the "dead" of winter. If you apply repellents when the temperature is not optimum, or if it drops below freezing before the product dries, you will encounter winter injury on certain plants, especially broad-leaved evergreens. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  19. Use of Repellents • Alternate repellents to enhance effectiveness. You don't want to habituate "your" deer to one repellent. • The new combinations of odor and scent-based repellents are very effective in deterring deer. Likewise, systemic repellents seem to be effective, but not for as long as the label would lead you to believe. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  20. Food plotshttp://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/ddmtdeter.asp • Under certain circumstances food plots can be effective in patterning deer away from plantings. In rural areas where large parcels are the norm, siting a food plot on the "back forty" can work. The primary factor for determining success of this technique is the amount of land involved. This method will not work in more residential areas where small lots are the norm. There is no lot size threshold to use when determining if food plots will be effective as there are so many variables which come into play; however, I would not advocate food plots unless the property involved has at least 50 or more acres. Siting food plots on smaller lots may actually attract more deer into the vicinity. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  21. Food plots • Food plots or stations (typically employing one of the popular automatic deer feeders) must be utilized year-round to be effective. • Site the food plot as far as possible from landscape plantings. In addition, try to select a location that has cover (i.e. brush) that will further encourage the deer to frequent this site. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  22. Scare deviceshttp://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/ddmtdeter.asp • Scare devices can be effective at deterring deer damage, but, because of their adaptable nature, deer can learn to overcome their fear of some scare devices over time. Field trials of various scare devices indicated that deer can become habituated to them after a week of exposure to them. Trials of various scare devices have produced variable results. • No definitive studies have evaluated scare devices based on their effectiveness. Consumers should question manufacturers claims. Judgments should be based on testimonials and personal experiences with these products. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  23. Dogs As A Deterrenthttp://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/ddmtdeter.asp • Dogs can be used as a deterrent to discourage deer from feeding on some crops. A method sometimes employed is to tether a dog on a rope near the plants needing protection. The dog should scare away deer with its barking. It is important that the dog be energetic and willing to bark at the deer. Deer are adaptable and can learn to keep just out of the dog’s reach or may tolerate the dog's barking. This technique can be useful in protecting small areas André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  24. Deer fencinghttp://www.ecostudies.org/lma_deer_resistance_strategies.html • Deer fencing, typically 7.5' or more in height, can be very successful in protecting large beds or even entire properties. Woven wire and heavy duty PVC plastic fencing are very effective if properly maintained. If the integrity of your fence is compromised due to power outages (in the case of electric fences), blow-downs on fences, or poor maintenance, it will cease to function as an effective barrier. Additionally, fences must be erected quickly to be effective. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  25. Deer fencing • Prolonged construction projects, especially with the "short" fences (typically the popular 6' high electric fences), or poor maintenance of electric fences (i.e. allowing grass or weeds to grow up through the wires, thus reducing voltage) will certainly lead to failure. • If the fence is not erected quickly, ideally in a day or two, deer will often simply jump over the short fences to enter the property. The all-important first contact with a new electric fence must be a good one (from your standpoint!). Once a deer has received a potent shock from an electric fence, it will develop a healthy respect for it and give it wide berth. The new generation of electric chargers, the "New Zealand" types, are very effective. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  26. Credit: Stéphane Roy André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  27. Credit: Peter M. Kilburn kilmo57@yahoo.com CLIMATIC FREEGROW André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  28. Utilisation hints(L’écho des Forêts, june 2000 CRPF Midi-Pyénées) • The shelter-greenhouse must be removed within 3 years to avoid a too poor root development. • The conditions of growth and ventilation must stay the same during all the growing season (remove the tube for example). • The shelter-greenhouse must be used only with deciduous trees. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  29. Inexpensive method tested in the South of Quebec(G. Neri, Kramer nursery) André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  30. Where deer abound, it may be a good idea to plant reserve trees (height: 2 metres) to prevent grazing (credit: G. Neri) André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  31. Pruning Information provided in this document is taken mostly from: Hubert and Courraud, 1994, Élagage et taille de formation des arbres forestiers. Institut de développement forestier de France, 304 p. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  32. Overview • Definitions • Pruning for shaping • Pruning for wood quality • Plant reactions André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  33. Objectives • Pruning: • To produce a strong, straight tree • To produce clear, knot-free timber (higher value) • To ensure more even growth of diameter • To promote growth in companion species • To limit growth of branches over crop land • Pollarding: to remove adventitious shoots from the base of the tree André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  34. Pruning for shaping Definitions Fork and big branches Pruning for wood quality Pollarding adventitious shoots (Hubert and Courraud, 1994) André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  35. Pruning for shaping • Remove duplicate and multiple heads. • Slow growth of branches (or remove altogether) that may be detrimental to development of leaders. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  36. Different stages in the life of a tree require different operations (Hubert and Courraud, 1994) • When planting • Cutting roots: • Use pruning shears to cut off damaged roots until section is ivory coloured. • Regenerate taproot very lightly. • Cutting stem: • Hardwoods: remove all branches (an operation we don’t often realize). • Conifers: keep branches, except in cases where roots have been damaged. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  37. Different stages in the life of a tree require different operations (Hubert and Courraud, 1994) • Shearing after start of growth: • If tree has started growing but does not seem strong, do nothing except if: • Multiple crowns develop or crown is destroyed • Insufficient trimming • Development of suckers at the base André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  38. Development of multiple crown or destruction of crown • Cut down to a strong lateral shoot or a lateral bud, then remove all shoots in front of chosen shoot that are of same height. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  39. Development of suckers at the base • Remove suckers, except if a given sucker seems very strong and catches up with the stem. The stem can then be replaced by the sucker. All other stalks should be removed from the base, including the main stem. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  40. Pruning for shaping after start of growth • When plant is strong (annual growth of 30 cm or more) • Correct irregular crown • Slow growth or eliminate dangerous branches • Remove suckers from the base • Coppicing André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  41. Pinching green shoots • Pinching green shoots that are very young is efficient, not very costly and requires little time. • Should be done using the nail of the thumb: • At the base of the shoot to eliminate duplicate or multiple crowns. • A few cm below the tip of strong branches that develop too quickly. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  42. Coppicing • Consists in cutting a plant down, close to ground level, because its structure cannot be salvaged by shearing. Should be done on vigorous plants only (annual growth of 30 cm or more). • An efficient technique on plants that demonstrate good development André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  43. (Hubert and Courraud, 1994) Coppicing cutting the tree close to ground level choose the best stem André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  44. Pruning for shaping during growth • Pruning for shaping is done over a period of 10 to 25 years, until the factory saw log is formed (height of 4 to 8 metres). André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  45. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  46. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  47. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  48. 3 Leader remake 2 1 Cut of the broken leader Attach the lateral Cut the tutor MICHAU, E., (1985). L'élagage, la taille des arbres d'ornement. France: Institut pour le développement forestier de France. 300 p. Step #2 is not always necessary as the lateral branch may grow into the desired shape by itself. André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  49. Pruning for wood quality (reminder of objectives) • To produce clear, knot-free timber (higher value) • To ensure more even growth of diameter • To promote growth in companion species • To limit growth of branches over crop land André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus

  50. Pruning for wood quality • Pruning for wood quality is a complementary operation to pruning for shaping. Both share the same main objective: producing high quality timber. • Pruning should be done early on (cheaper and more efficient) but should not hinder plant development. • Pruning should be done progressively (less traumatic for the tree). André Vézina, ITA, La Pocatière Campus