part i chapter 18 archaebacteria eubacteria n.
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PART I Chapter 18 Archaebacteria & Eubacteria - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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PART I Chapter 18 Archaebacteria & Eubacteria. Phylogeny. Characteristics. First living evidence on earth Unicellular Prokaryotes (No membrane-bound organelles) Cell wall with internal plasma membrane Found everywhere. Bacteria. Special Features. Pilus/pili - hairlike protrusion

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characteristics
Characteristics
  • First living evidence on earth
  • Unicellular
  • Prokaryotes (No membrane-bound organelles)
  • Cell wall with internal plasma membrane
  • Found everywhere
special features
Special Features
  • Pilus/pili - hairlike protrusion
    • to stick to surfaces
    • a bridge for sexual reproduction
  • Flagellum - long, whiplike protrusion, for moving
  • Capsule - sticky layers around cell wall
  • Toxin - a powerful poison
  • Endospore – found in some bacteria
    • resists harsh environments
classification
Classification:
  • Shape
    • Cocci (Spheres), Bacilli (Rods), Spirilli (Spiral)
  • Gram stain - Cell wall type
    • Thick = Purple Stain = “Gram Positive”
    • Thin = Pink Stain = “Gram Negative”
  • Growth patterns
    • Diplo- pairs
    • Staphylo- clusters
    • Strepto- chains
beneficial bacteria
Beneficial Bacteria
  • Nitrogen fixation
    • Converts nitrogen into ammonia
    • a form that plants can use
  • Nodules
    • A symbiotic relationship between bacteria and plants
beneficial bacteria1
(Beneficial Bacteria)
  • Saprophytes (decomposers)
    • Breaks down dead organisms and decaying matter
    • Returns nutrients to soil
beneficial bacteria2
(Beneficial Bacteria)
  • Make food:
    • Cheese
    • Pickles
    • Yogurt
    • Vinegar
    • Sauerkraut
pathogenic bacteria disease causing bacteria
Pathogenic Bacteria – disease-causing bacteria
  • Pathogen – an organism that causes disease
  • Produce toxins
  • Damage host’s tissues
  • Enter through openings in body (via air, food, water)
antibiotics destroys cell wall of bacteria creates holes in the cell walls
Antibiotics:~ Destroys cell wall of bacteria~ Creates holes in the cell walls
  • Sir Alexander Fleming

1928 - discovered Penicillium notatum

reproduction
Asexual

Binary Fission

Cell division

Rapid - 20 min.

Sexual

Conjugation – exchange genetic material

Pili/pilus - bridge

Reproduction