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NIGHT SEAT BELT ENFORCEMENT DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM AND EVALUATION PowerPoint Presentation
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NIGHT SEAT BELT ENFORCEMENT DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM AND EVALUATION
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  1. NIGHT SEAT BELT ENFORCEMENT DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM AND EVALUATION [NIGHT SEAT BELT ENFORCEMENT: NHTSA Contract - DTNH22-05-R-05094] Preusser Research Group, Inc Mark Solomon National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Alan Block NHTSA Briefing April 9, 2008

  2. BACKGROUND Slide 2

  3. Problem at Night % Belted among fatally injured front seat occupants of passenger vehicles Source: FARS 1998-2004 Slide 3

  4. 700 Pos. BAC Unbelted Zero BAC Unbelted 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 1:00 PM 4:00 PM 9:00 AM 8:00 AM 4:00 AM 1:00 AM 2:00 AM 3:00 AM 7:00 AM 6:00 AM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM 5:00 AM 11:00 AM 10:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM Fatally Injured Drivers, FARS 2003, Imputed BAC, Passenger Vehicles Slide 4

  5. NIGHT SEAT BELT ENFORCEMENT DEMONSTRATION • AND EVALUATION [Contract - DTNH22-05-R-05094] • Two Study Objectives: • Collect information regarding methods of night-time enforcement from law enforcement officers/agencies • and then • Demonstrate and evaluate night-time seat belt enforcement program • Can belt use be improved at night? • Bleed over effect into alcohol? Slide 5

  6. Study Objective 1 Collect information regarding methods of night-time enforcement from law enforcement officers/agencies Slide 6

  7. Study Objective 1 - Collect information regarding methods of night-time enforcement from law enforcement officer/agencies • The topical discussion guide was completed March 2006 • Contacted Law Enforcement Agency officers who had night belt use enforcement experience • What was discussed? • Department characteristics • Experience with night traffic enforcement • How night enforcement got started • Necessary elements for night belt enforcement • Inclusion of DWI with night belt enforcement Slide 7

  8. Study Objective 1 - Collect information regarding methods of night-time enforcement from law enforcement officer/agencies Learned • Techniques of night enforcement varied among LEAs • Checkpoints/Safety Zones • Officer Spotters; • Two-Officers per Vehicle; • Single Officer with Vehicle • Type belt law matters • Amount of manpower and equipment depends on enforcement tactic • More than belt violators out at night • Upfront with media helps with this novel approach • Explanation of goals and approach to local media • Legal counsel needs to be consulted upfront • Political support should be sought • It takes leadership, equipment, and training Slide 8

  9. Study Objective 2 Demonstrate and evaluate night-time seat belt program Slide 9

  10. Study Objective 2- Demonstrate and evaluate night-time seat belt enforcement programs in three study communities Evaluation Questions: • Can night-time enforcement improve the belt use rate at night? At daytime? • Do different enforcement techniques make a difference? • Does a night-time belt enforcement program also deter alcohol impaired driving? Slide 10

  11. Recruitment of Study Sites: • NHTSA Regions were contacted and then States for nominations of potential study sites • Study Requirements: • Population between 50K and 300k • Located in single independent media market • Show support of key parties in community • Have protocol for handling drunk drivers and have SFST officers participating • Have someone on staff knowledgeable of earned media • Conduct traffic enforcement at night • Four 10-day belt enforcement waves; between the hours 10pm and 2am • 1 wave per calendar quarter in year 2007 • Second wave synchronized with May CIOT Mobilization Study Objective 2 - Demonstrate and evaluate night-time seat belt enforcement programs in three study communities Slide 11

  12. In order to qualify for selection, law enforcement agencies had to: • Complete an application • Indicate how they would fulfill the requirements for the study • Identify preferred enforcement tactic • Provide a person to support local earned media effort • Provide official letters of support from community leaders • Provide details for remuneration Study Objective 2 - Demonstrate and evaluate night-time seat belt enforcement programs in three study communities Slide 12

  13. Study Communities • Three Test Communities • Two in North Carolina (primary law) • Asheville • Greenville • One in West Virginia (secondary law) • Charleston • Two Comparison Communities • Gaston, NC • Wheeling, WV Slide 13

  14. Incentive for Participation • $200,000 per study community for overtime and equipment • Over ½ of funding spent on equipment used for demonstration program • cargo trailer • traffic cones • light towers • programmable message boards • traffic vests • gloves • flashlights • digital in-car video cameras for DWI • radios for communication • other Slide 14

  15. Three Different Enforcement Approaches Were Used • Seat Belt Checkpoints (Asheville, NC) • Saturation Patrol (Greenville, NC) • Safety Enforcement Zones (Charleston, WV) Slide 15

  16. 1. “Seat Belt Checkpoints” • Asheville, NC Asheville Police Buncombe County Sheriff Biltmore Forest Police Woodfin Police NC State Highway Patrol WNC Safe Kids District Attorney’s Office NHTSA PRG NC GHSP Slide 16

  17. 2. “Saturation Patrols” • Greenville, NC Greenville Police Winterville Police Bethel Police Farmville Police Ayden Police Pitt County Sheriff Ayden Police East Carolina University Police Pitt County Memorial Hospital Police NHTSA PRG NC GHSP Slide 17

  18. 3. “Safety Enforcement Zones” • Charleston, WV(secondary law) Charleston Police Slide 18

  19. Paid Media Supported the Program Enforcement Television commercials were produced by NHTSA’s Office of Communications and their paid contractor, The Tombras Group The advertisement focused on young adult males encountering law enforcement at night Television commercials ran concurrently with the enforcement effort Radio advertisements also were used Slide 19

  20. CHARLESTON NIGHTTIME PLANNER THIRD WAVE SAMPLE NEWS RELEASE FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: [Date] CONTACT: [Name, Phone Number, E-mail address] Charleston Police Department Launches Special Wave of Enforcement at Night Goal Is to Boost Seat Belt Use—and to Save Lives [City, State] – In an effort to save more lives on Charleston’s roadways, local law enforcement is continuing to buckle down on those not buckled up—day and night. According to NHTSA, 69 percent of passenger vehicle occupants killed in nighttime motor vehicle crashes in West Virginia in 2005 were not wearing their seat belts at the time of the crash. That percentage is considerably higher than the 51 percent of passenger vehicle occupants who were unrestrained and killed during daytime hours in the State. That’s why the Charleston Police Department announced today that they are launching a special “Click It or Ticket” enforcement mobilization to target those not buckled up, especially at night. Special Safety Enforcement Zones will be set up across the city at night to crack down on traffic violations, including seat belt violations, from July 27–August 5. Anyone who is pulled over for another violation and is caught not wearing a seat belt will be ticketed and fined—no excuses. “Clearly more drivers at night than during the day are taking the attitude that it will never happen to me. But the risk of a fatal crash actually goes up at night,” [Law Enforcement official] said. “That’s why this July and throughout the year, we’re increasing Safety Enforcement Zones to make sure that all passengers, in all vehicles, are buckled up—day and night.” [Law enforcement official] said regular seat belt use is the single most effective way to protect people and reduce fatalities in motor vehicle crashes. He said that 77 percent of passenger vehicle occupants in a fatal crash who were buckled up survived the crash. But too many motorists ignore these facts at night. In 2005, 171 passenger vehicle occupants killed in fatal motor vehicle crashes in West Virginia were not wearing their seat belts at the time of the crash. Of this total, 87 of the unbelted fatalities took place between the hours of 6:00 p.m.–5:59 a.m. “Seat belts clearly save lives. But unfortunately, too many folks in our area still need a tough reminder, so our special nighttime Safety Enforcement Zones are going to help remind folks to always buckle up,” said [Law enforcement official]. “Wearing your seat belt costs you nothing, but the cost for not wearing it certainly will. So unless you want to risk a ticket, or worse, your life, please remember to buckle up day and night—‘Click It or Ticket.’” —more— For more information, visit www.nhtsa.gov/link/ciot.htm. ### Earned Media Supported the Program Enforcement Earned media were produced by NHTSA’s Office of Communications and their paid contractor, Akins Crisp Public Strategies Provided each intervention wave: • Fact sheet and talking points • Letter to editor • News release • OP ed articles Slide 20

  21. Program Evaluation Slide 21

  22. Program Evaluation Evaluation Techniques • Enforcement activity data • Media information • Awareness surveys • Seat belt observational surveys • Roadside BAC surveys • Crash data Slide 22

  23. Evaluation Results Enforcement Activity Slide 23

  24. Evaluation Results Officer Hours Slide 24

  25. Evaluation Results Enforcement Input Slide 25

  26. Evaluation Results Seat Belt Tickets Slide 26

  27. Evaluation Results DUI Arrests Slide 27

  28. Evaluation Results Speeding Tickets Slide 28

  29. Evaluation Results Suspended License Tickets Slide 29

  30. Evaluation Results Uninsured Motorists Slide 30

  31. Enforcement Summary Evaluation Results • Enforcement agencies stuck to planned intervention type • Enforcement participation in some cases lessened over course of wave • Night enforcement often resulted in additional police work • No public or administrative backlash Slide 31

  32. Evaluation Results Media Activity Slide 32

  33. Evaluation Results Paid Media Input Varied from Wave to Wave Slide 33

  34. Evaluation Results Earned Media Input Number of Reported Occurrences • PRG asked enforcement agency contacts to tally earned media • Number of press conferences • Number of TV news stories • Number of Radio news stories • Number of Print news stories • Earned media reporting was incomplete • News media appeared to grow less interested over-time • Two checkpoint locations garnered attention using checkpoint results as a hook Slide 34

  35. Evaluation Results AWARENESS RESULTS Slide 35

  36. Evaluation Results Awareness *Pre 1 and Post 1 DL Office survey responses; all else are telephone survey responses Slide 36

  37. Evaluation Results Awareness *Pre 1 and Post 1 DL Office survey responses; all else are telephone survey responses Slide 37

  38. Evaluation Results BELT USE RESULTS Slide 38

  39. Evaluation Results Charleston, WV NIGHT Seat Belt Use Slide 39

  40. Evaluation Results Charleston, WV DAY Seat Belt Use Slide 40

  41. Evaluation Results Charleston, WV NIGHT and DAY Seat Belt Use Slide 41

  42. Evaluation Results Charleston, WV NIGHT and DAY Seat Belt Use Slide 42

  43. Evaluation Results Greenville, NC NIGHT Seat Belt Use Slide 43

  44. Evaluation Results Greenville, NC DAY Seat Belt Use Slide 44

  45. Evaluation Results Greenville, NC NIGHT and DAY Seat Belt Use Slide 45

  46. Evaluation Results Greenville, NC (Test) vs. Gastonia, NC (Comparison) NIGHT and DAY Seat Belt Use Slide 46

  47. Evaluation Results Greenville, NC NIGHT Seat Belt Use Slide 47

  48. Evaluation Results Asheville, NC DAY Seat Belt Use Slide 48

  49. Evaluation Results Asheville, NC Night and DAY Seat Belt Use Slide 49

  50. Evaluation Results Asheville, NC (TEST) vs. Gastonia, NC (Comparison) NIGHT Seat Belt Use Slide 50