Attack on Pearl Harbor December 7th, 1941
Planning the Attack • Plan to attack Pearl Harbor was discussed as early as March of 1940 • The strategy was written by Admiral Yamamoto in Jan. 1941 • Japanese trained for the attack at small bases to simulate Pearl Harbor.
3 Problems • Refueling in the Pacific • Tankers would follow larger ships to refuel • Accuracy of the Pilots • Experimented with altitude and dive angles allowed accuracy rate of bombers to improve to 70% • Depth of the torpedoes • Used a stabilizer fin on the torpedo to reduce the depth to ~40ft. So that the torpedo could hit its target.
December 7, 1941the early morning • The attack was planned by Isoroku Yamamoto • The first attack occurred at 7:55 a.m. • The second attack followed at 8:54 a.m.
Attack Visual • The first attacks would hit the USS Oklahoma, West Virginia, • Arizona, and Nevada. • The second attack would hit USS Pennsylvania, and cruisers: • San Francisco, and New Orleans.
Ships 3 battleships sunk 3 battleships disabled 11 other ships sunk/damaged Other 188 aircraft destroyed on ground 2,330 servicemen killed 100 civilians killed Attacks Casualities
Sunk USS California USS West Virginia Oglala (minelayer) *Were all later raised and rebuilt. Destroyed USS Arizona USS Utah USS Oklahoma (was raised) Ship Casualities
Roosevelt Announces to the World “December 7, 1941- a date which will live in infamy- the United States was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”
During the Attack * Japan would control the entire Pacific by December 8
After the Attack • December 8: United States declared war on Japan. • December 11: Germany declared war on America. • Italy then declared war on America. • Great Britain declared war on Japan.
America’s Reaction • Many sons enlisted into the military to help fight the war. • Many daughters entered the work force to help aid the cause.
USS Arizona • Positioned in “Battle Row”. • Hit within 10 min. after attack began. • Bomb crashed through the 2 armored decks, igniting its magazine. • Went down with 1,300 lives.
USS Arizona Memorial “Created to honor the survivors of Pearl Harbor, their families and friends, and to all those who died.” The ship has been preserved as a tomb for those who went down with the ship. Erected in 1962.